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A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith) 10 10 Browse Search
Diodorus Siculus, Library 1 1 Browse Search
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A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), (search)
ricians and plebeians, the Aequians and Volscians again took up arms, began ravaging Latium, and advanced up to the very walls of the city. The people of Rome were too distracted among themselves to take the field against the enemy, but Capitolinus succeeded in allaying the discontent of the plebs, and in rousing the nation to defend itself with all energy. The supreme command of the Roman army was given him with the consent of his colleague, and he routed the enemy in a fierce contest. In B. C. 443 he obtained his fifth consulship. In this year the censorship was instituted at Rome as an office distinct from the consulship. While his colleague M. Geganius Macerinus was engaged in a war against Ardea, Capitolinus gained equal laurels at home by acting as mediator between the patricians and plebeians, with both of whom he had acquired the highest esteem. The extraordinary wisdom and moderation he had shewn on all occasions, obtained for him the sixth consulship in B. C. 439, together w
Ce'phalus (*Ke/falos). 1. The son of Lysanias, grandson of Cephalus, and father of the orator Lysias, was a Syracusan by birth, but went to Athens at the invitation of Pericles, where he lived thirty years, till his death, taking a part in public affairs, enjoying considerable wealth, and having so high a reputation that he never had an action brought against him. He is one of the speakers in Plato's Republic. * The Cephalus, who is one of the speakers in the Parmenides of Plato, was a different person, a native of Clazomenae. (Plat. Parm. p. 126.) (Lys. c. Eratosth. p. 120. 26, ed. Steph.; Plat. Repub. p. 328b. &c., comp. Cic. Att. 4.16; Taylor's Life of Lysias, in Reiske's Oratores Graeci.) He died at a very advanced age before B. C. 443, so that he must have settled at Athens before B. C. 473. (Clinton, Fast. Hell. s. ann. 443.) He left three sons -- Polemarchus, Lysias, and Euthydemu
arondas till they were abolished by Anaxilaus, who, after a reign of eighteen years, died B. C. 476. These facts sufficiently refute the common account of Charondas, as given by Diodorus (12.12) : viz. that after Thurii was founded by the people of the ruined city of Sybaris, the colonists chose Charondas, " the best of their fellow-citizens," to draw up a code of laws for their use. For Thurii, as we have seen, is not included among the Chalcidian cities, and the date of its foundation is B. C. 443. It is also demonstrated by Bentley (Phalaris, p. 367, &c.), that the laws which Diodorus gives as those drawn up by Charondas for the Thurians were in reality not his. For Aristotle (Aristot. Pol. 4.12) tells us, that his laws were adapted to an aristocracy, whereas in Diodorus we constantly find him ordering appeals to the dh=mos, and the constitution of Thurii is expressly called poli/teuma dhmokratiko/n. Again, we learn from a happy correction made by Bentley in a corrupt passage of th
Cloe'lius an Aequian, the commander of a Volscian force, came to besiege Ardea, B. C. 443, invited by the plebs of that town, who had been driven out of it by the optimates. While he was before the place, the Romans, under the consul M. Geganius, came to the assistance of the optimates, drew lines around the Volscians, and did not allow them to march out till they had surrendered their general, Cloelius, who adorned the triumph of the consul at Rome. (Liv. 4.9, 10.) Comp. COELIUS GRACCHUS.
s (B. C. 484). Thence he removed to Syracuse, with the other inhabitants of Megara, when the latter city was destroyed by Gelon (B. C. 484 or 483). Here he spent the remainder of his life, which was prolonged throughout the reign of Hieron, at whose court Epicharmus associated with the other great writers of the time, and among them, with Aeschylus, who seems to have had some influence on his dramatic course. He died at the age of ninety (B. C. 450), or, ac cording to Lucian, ninety-seven (B. C. 443). The city of Syracuse erected a statue to him, the inscription on which is preserved by Diogenes Laertius. (D. L. 8.78; Suid. s.v. Lucian, Macrob. 25; Aelian, Ael. VH 2.34; Plut. Moral. pp. 68, a., 175, c.; Marmor Parium, No. 55.) In order to understand the relation of Epicharmus to the early comic poetry, it must be remembered that Megara, in Sicily, was a colony from Megara on the Isthmus, the inhabitants of which disputed with the Athenians the invention of comedy, and where, at all
vol. vi. p. 222, and Dorier, vol. ii. p. 251, 2nd edit.) that this work must be referred to the age of Pericles, not to that of Themistocles. The change which Hippodamus introduced was the substitution of broad straight streets, crossing each other at right angles, for the crooked narrow streets, with angular crossings, which had before prevailed throughout the greater part, if not the whole, of Greece. When the Athenians founded their colony of Thurii, on the site of the ancient Sybaris (B. C. 443), Hippodamus went out with the colonists, and was the architect of the new city. Hence he is often called a Thurian. He afterwards built Rhodes (B. C. 408-7). How he came to be connected with a Dorian state, and one so hostile to Athens, we do not know ; but much light would be thrown on this subject, and on the whole of the life of Hippodamus, if we could determine whether the scholiast on Aristophanes (Aristoph. Kn. 327) is right or wrong in identifying him with the father of the Athenia
Ly'sias (*Lusi/as), an Attic orator, was born at Athens in B. C. 458; he was the son of Cephalus, who was a native of Syracuse, and had taken up his abode at Athens, on the invitation of Pericles. (Dionys. Lys. 1; Plut. Vit. X. Orat. p. 835 ; Phot. Bibl. Cod. 262, p. 488, &c.; Suid. s. v. *Lusi/as; Lys. c. Eratosth. § 4; Cic. Brut. 16.) When he was little more than fifteen years old, in B. C. 443, Lysias and his two (some say three) brothers joined the Athenians who went as colonists to Thurii in Italy. He there completed his education under the instruction of two Syracusans, Tisias and Nicias, and afterwards enjoyed great esteem among the Thurians, and even seems to have taken part in the administration of the young republic. From a passage of Aristotle (ap. Cic. Brut. 12), we learn that he devoted some time to the teaching of rhetoric, though it is uncertain whether he entered upon this profession while yet at Thurii, or did not commence till after his return to Athens, where we kn
Maceri'nus 3. M. Geganius Macerinus, M. F., was three times consul; first in B. C. 447, with C. Julius Julus; a second time in B. C. 443, with T. Quintius Capitolinus Barbatus, in which year he conquered the Volscians, and obtained a triumph on account of his victory; and a third time in B. C. 437, with L. Sergius Fidenas. (Liv. 3.65, 4.8-10, 17; Dionys. A. R. 11.51, 63; Diod. 12.29, 33, 43; Zonar. 7.19.) The censorship, which was instituted in his second consulship, he filled in B. C. 435, with C. Furius Pacilus Fusus. These censors first held the census of the people in a public villa of the Campus Martius. It is also related of them that they removed Mam. Aemilius Mamercinus from his tribe, and reduced him to the condition of an aerarian, because he had proposed and carried a bill limiting the time during which the censorship was to be held from five years to a year and a half. (Liv. 4.22, 24, 9.33, 34.)
Ni'cias 2. A rhetorician of Syracuse, who, with Tisias, instructed Lycias, B. C. 443. (Suid. s. v. *Lusi/as Westermann (Gesch. der Griech. Bered. p. 38) suggests that the separate mention of a Syracusan Nicias may have arisen from the confusion of names. For though many writers mention him along with Tisias, they seem to have all drawn from one common source.
s the result of his own experience and observations. His minute description of Syracuse and the neighbourhood leads to the probable conclusion that he was personally acquainted with the localities; and if he visited Sicily, it is probable that he also saw some parts of southern Italy, and an anonymous biographer speaks of Thucydides having been at Sybaris. But it is rather too bold a conjecture to make, as some have done, that Olorus and his son Thucydides went out in the colony to Thurii, B. C. 443, which was joined by Herodotus and the orator Lysias, then a young man. Timaeus, as quoted by Marcellinus, says that Thucydides during his exile lived in Italy; but if he means during all the time of his exile, his statement cannot be accepted, for it would contradict the inference which may be fairly derived from a passage in Thucydides that has been already referred to. Timaeus, and other authorities also, affirmed that Thucydides was buried at Thurii; as to which Krüger ingeniously argu