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A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith) 29 29 Browse Search
Diodorus Siculus, Library 2 2 Browse Search
Pindar, Odes (ed. Diane Arnson Svarlien) 1 1 Browse Search
Strabo, Geography (ed. H.C. Hamilton, Esq., W. Falconer, M.A.) 1 1 Browse Search
Titus Livius (Livy), History of Rome, books 1-10 (ed. Rev. Canon Roberts) 1 1 Browse Search
Pliny the Elder, The Natural History (ed. John Bostock, M.D., F.R.S., H.T. Riley, Esq., B.A.) 1 1 Browse Search
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Browsing named entities in A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith). You can also browse the collection for 444 BC or search for 444 BC in all documents.

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.2.) He was the most famous of the pupils of Phidias, but was not so close an imitator of his master as Agoracritus. Like his fellow-pupil, he exercised his talent chiefly in making statues of the deities. By ancient writers he is ranked amongst the most distinguished artists, and is considered by Pausanias second only to Phidias. (Quint. Inst. 12.10.8; Dionys. De Demosth. acum. vol. vi. p. 1108, ed. Reiske; Paus. 5.10.2.) He flourished from about Ol. 84 (Plin. Nat. 34.8. s. 19) to Ol. 95 (B. C. 444-400). Pliny's date is confirmed by Pausanias, who says (8.9.1), that Praxiteles flourished in the third generation after Alcamnenes; and Praxiteles, as Pliny tells us, flourished about Ol. 104 (B. C. 364). The last works of his which we hear of, were the colossal statues of Athene and Hercules, which Thrasybulus erected in the temple of Hercules at Thebes after the expulsion of the tyrants from Athens. (B. C. 403.) The most beautiful and renowned of the works of Alcamenes was a statue of V
enerally allowed to be spurious. He was an Athenian of the tribe Pandionis, and the Cydathenaean Demus, and is said to have been the pupil of Prodicus, though this is improbable, since he speaks of him rather with contempt. (Nub. 360, Av. 692, Tagenist. Fragm. xviii. Bekk.) We are told (Schol. ad Ran. 502), that he first engaged in the comic contests when he was sxe/don meira/kiskos, and we know that the date of his first comedy was B. C. 427 : we are therefore warranted in assigning about B. C. 444 as the date of his birth, and his death was probably not later than B. C. 380. His three sons, Philippus, Araros, and Nicostratus, were all poets of the middle comedy. Of his private history we know nothing but that he was a lover of pleasure (Plat. Symp. particularly p. 223), and one who spent whole nights in drinking and witty conversation. Accusations (his anonymous biographer says, more than one) were brought against him by Cleon, with a view to deprive him of his civic rights (ceni/as
Ati'lius 1. L. Atilius, a plebeian, consular tribune B. C. 399, and again in 396. (Liv. 5.13, 18; Diod. 14.54, 90.) He must be distinguished from L. Atilius, the consular tribune in B. C. 444 (Liv. 4.7), who was a patrician, and whose cognomen was Longus, as we learn from Dionysius (11.61).
Atrati'nus 2. A SEMPRONIUS ATRATINUS, A. F., son of No. 1, consular tribune B. C. 444, the year in which this office was first instituted. In consequence of a defect in the auspices, he and his colleagues resigned, and consuls were appointed in their stead. (Liv. 4.7; Dionys, 11.61; Diod. 12.32.)
Atrati'nus 3. L. Sempronius Atratinus, A. F., son of No. 1, consul B. C. 444. He was censor in the following year with L. Papirius Mugillanus, and they were the first who held this office. (Dionys. A. R. 11.62, 63; Liv. 4.7, 8; Cic. Fam. 9.21.)
A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), (search)
Caeci'lia Gens plebeian; for the name of T. Caecilius in Livy (4.7, comp. 6), the patrician consular tribune in B. C. 444, is a false reading for T. Cloelius. A member of this gens is mentioned in history as early as the fifth century B. C.; but the first of the Caecilii who obtained the consulship was L. Caecilius Metellus Denter, in 284. The family of the Metelli became from this time one of the most distinguished in the state. Like other Roman families in the later times of the republic, they traced their origin to a mythical personage, and pretended that they were descended from Caeculus, the founder of Praeneste [CAECULUS], or Caecas, the companion of Aeneas. (Festus, s. v. Caeculus.) The cognomens of this gens under the republic are BASSUS, DENTER, MIETELLUS, NIGER, PINNA, RUFUS, of which the Metelli are the best known: for those whose cognomen is not mentioned, see CAECILIUS.
Colo'tes (*Kolw/ths). 1. A sculptor from the island of Paros, who assisted Phidias in executing the colossus of Zeus at Olympia, and left several beautiful works, principally in gold and ivory, in Elis, where he seems to have lived in banishment. He appears to belong to Ol. 84, &c. (B. C. 444), and is praised for his statues of philosophers. (Strab. viii. p.337; Plin. Nat. 34.19, 35.34; Paus. 5.20.1; Eustath. ad Il. 2.603; Böckh, Corp. Inscr. n. 2
Lemnos, where the Athenians established a cleruchia. All these theories were overthrown by two inscriptions found near the Acropolis, one of which belongs to a statue of Epicharinus, who had won a prize running in arms, mentioned by Pausanias (1.23.11), and should probably be restored thus: *)Epixari=nos a)ne/qhken.. *Kri/tios kai\ *Nhsiw/ths e)poihsa/thn. From this we learn, first, that the artist's name was Critios, not Critias; then that Nesiotes in Pliny's text is a proper name. This Nesiotes was probably so far the assistant of the greater master, that he superintended the execution in bronze of the models of Critios. The most celebrated of their works were, the statues of Hannodius and Aristogeiton on the Acropolis. These were erected B. C. 477. (Marm. Oxon. Epoch. lv.) Critias was, therefore, probably older than Phidias, but lived as late as B. C. 444, to see the greatness of his rival. (Plin. l.c.) (Lucian, Philosoph. 18; Paus. 1.8.3; Ross, Kunstblatt, 1840, No. 11.) [L.
2.) The fragments extant refer chiefly to symposiac subjects. Aristotle censures him for his bad metaphors, and in the fragments extant we still perceive a great fondness of raising the importance of common things by means of far-fetched images and allegories. The time at which he lived is accurately determined by the statement of Plutarch, that Nicias had in. his house a highly accomplished man of the name of Hieron, who gave himself out to be a son of Dionysius Chalcus, the leader of the Attic colony to Thurii in Italy, which was founded in B. C. 444. (Comp. Phot. s. v. *Qourioma/nteis, where we have probably to read xalw=| instead of xalkidei=.) It is true, that other writers mention different persons as the leaders of that colony to Thurii, but Dionysius may certainly have been one of them. (Osann, Beiträge z. Griech. u. Röm. Lit. i. p. 79, &c.; Welcker, in the Rhein. Mus. for 1836, p. 440, &c.; Bergk, Poet. Lyr. Graec. p. 432, &c., where the fragments of Dionysius are collected
Empe'docles (*)Empedoklh=s), of Acragas (Agrigentum), in Sicily, flourished about Olymp. 84, or B. C. 444. (D. L. 8.74; comp. 51, 52; Simon Karsten, Empedoclis Agrigent. Carmin. Reliquiae, p. 9, &c.) His youth probably fell in the time of the glorious rule of Theron, from Ol. 73 to Ol. 77; and although he was descended from an ancient and wealthy family (D. L. 8.51), Empedocles with enthusiasm joined the revolution--as his father, Meton, had probably done before--in which Thrasydaeus, the son and successor of Theron, was expelled, and which became the watchword for the other Greek towns to shake off the yoke of their monarchs. (D. L. 8.72.) His zeal in the establishment of political equality is said to have been manifested by his magnanimous support of the poor (ibid. 73), by his inexorable severity in persecuting the overbearing conduct of the aristocrats (Timaeus, apud Diog. L. 8.64, comp. 65, 66), and in his declining the sovereignty which was offered to him. (Aristot. ap. Diog. 8
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