opper and tin, while brass consists of copper and zinc.
Hiram procured his tin in Cornwall, England.
Herodotus called Britain the Cassiterides, or Tin Islands, 450 B. C. Calamine was known in early times, and the Temple utensils may have been really brass.
The brazen bull was cast by Perillus of Athens, for Phalaris of Agrigen.
Brevier, 112 ems to the foot.
Minion, 128 ems to the foot.
The art of preparing fermented liquors from grain.
Herodotus, who wrote about 450 B. C., says that the Egyptians made their wine from barley, and ascribes the invention to Isis, wife of Osiris.
The Greeks used a malt liquor under the name of barle
From their peculiar form, the pressed cakes of tea which form so important a part of the Turcoman and Calmuck cuisine are known as brick tea.
Herodotus (450 B. C.), who had heard of this species of food, supposed it to be a kind of fruit, dried and pressed.
He says: The juice which runs off is black and thick, and is call
arged into the car through registers.
Carts and wagons were used by the Scythians in the time of Herodotus (450 B. C.), and are mentioned a century later by Hippocra- tes. The latter describes them as either four or six wheeled.
Burning with a red-hot iron was practiced by the Libyans, in the time of Herodotus (450 B. C.), as a cure for salt-rheum.
The practice is still in vogue there.
Cautery, we learn from Denham, is the sovereign Araho presided over the destinies of the respective countries or cities.
The silver coin of Alexander I., of Macedonia, 450 B. C., is said to have been the first which had a representation of the human figure; and the drachma of Archelaus, 413 B. C.ated since the days of Herodotus.
Ostia, the former port of Rome, is now many miles inland.
Herodotus referred (450 B. C.) to the action of the river Meander, and also stated that the river Achelous, which, after passing through Acarnania, e
painting in a tomb near the Pyramids.
The action indicates the side position of the mouth-pieces and holes.
Of the chromatic scale we may learn more from what Pythagoras has written, for no doubt he derived his information from the Egyptian priests, who were scientific musicians.
The flutes of ancient Egypt were single and double; the latter are shown on the paintings of Eleythya.
In one case the flute is apparently blown through the nostril, like the New Zealand flute.
Herodotus (450 B. C.) mentions the marching of the troops of Alyattes the Lydian to the sound of pipes and harps, and flutes masculine and feminine.
This has been understood to refer to the sexes of the players, but more probably indicates lower and higher musical pitch.
Flutes among the classic Greeks were made of asses' bones, which are said to be remarkably solid.
The euphony of the sound may be presumed to be in the inverse ratio of the natural tone of the original proprietor.
The same much-belied
Or a sheet of rubber wrapped on a tube and covered by several webs of cloth, saturated with prepared rubber, and eventually by a sheet of rubber.
The hose, when formed, is taken to a steam-boiler of great length, where, while still remaining upon the iron pipes, it is heated and cured by a process similar to that before described; after which the rubber is drawn off from the pipe, and it is ready for the market.
Among the earliest mention of hose is the following passage in Herodotus (450 B. C.). It refers to the mode of watering the hosts of Cambyses the Persian, during his passage of the desert to attack Psammenitus, the son of Amasis, the Pharaoh of Egypt:—
There is a great river in Arabia, called the Corys, which empties itself into the Erythraean [Red] Sea. The Arabian king, they say, made a pipe of the skins of oxen and other beasts, reaching from this river all the way to the desert, and so brought the water to certain cisterns which he had had dug in the desert to rece
rce, and either continuous or dependent upon touch; the blow being given when the point of the plugger is pressed upon the filling, and ceasing when the pressure is removed.
Among the ancients some success was obtained in the art of dentistry.
Casselius was a dentist in the reign of the Roman triumvirs, and gold was used for the filling.
Nearly 500 B. C. gold was thus used, and gold wire was employed to hold artificial teeth in position.
A fragment of the tenth of the Roman tables, 450 B. C., has reference to preventing the burial of any gold with the dead except that bound around the teeth.
Herodotus declares that the Egyptians had a knowledge of the diseases of teeth and their treatment 2000 B. C. In Martial, Casselius is mentioned as either filling or extracting teeth.
Green's electro-magnetic mallet.
Pins driven into the joints of brick or stone walls to receive the nails whereby battens are fastened to the walls.
king in tallow, then in wax, and finally carving and polishing.
Large quantities — it is said, about half of those now sold — are made from the waste.
This is ground to a fine powder and boiled with linseed oil and alum, and when the mass is sufficiently cohesive it is cast in molds, carefully dried, carved, and polished, in the same manner as is the original material.
Amber, which has become so favorite a material for mouthpieces, was brought from the Baltic in the time of Herodotus, 450 B. C.
The ordinary clay tobacco-pipe — which, by the by, has so long a stem that it is called in the slang of the pothouse, a yard of clay — is made by hand by a series of processes.
The clay is reduced to a plastic condition by pounding with a heavy wooden bar. A workman takes two lumps of clay, of the size of an average apple, and after kneading, rolls them on a table with the palms of his hands till they assume proximately the shape of a pipe, — two clay tadpoles with large heads and v