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A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith) 11 11 Browse Search
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Diodorus Siculus, Library 1 1 Browse Search
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Plato, Hippias Major, Hippias Minor, Ion, Menexenus, Cleitophon, Timaeus, Critias, Minos, Epinomis 1 1 Browse Search
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Browsing named entities in A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith). You can also browse the collection for 457 BC or search for 457 BC in all documents.

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modated with seats. In B. C. 467, his friend and patron king Hiero died; and in B. C. 458, it appears that Aeschylus was again at Athens from the fact that the trilogy of the Oresteia was produced in that year. The conjecture of Böckh, that this might have been a second representation in the absence of the poet, is not supported by any probable reasons, for we have no intimation that the Oresteia ever had been acted before. (Hermann, Opuse. ii. p. 137.) In the same or the following year (B. C. 457), Aeschylus again visited Sicily for the last time, and the reason assigned for this his second or as others conceive his fourth visit to this island, is both probable and sufficient. The fact is, that in his play of the Eumenides, the third and last of the three plays which made up the Orestean trilogy, Aeschylus proved himself a decided supporter of the ancient dignities and power of that " watchful guardian " of Athens, the aristocratical court of the Areiopagus, in opposition to Pericl
Auguri'nus 4. Q. Minucius Esquilinus Augurinus, P. F. M. N., brother of No. 3, consul B. C. 457, had the conduct of the war against the Sabines, but could not do more than ravage their lands, as they shut themselves up in their walled towns. (Liv. 3.30; Dionys. A. R. 10.26, 30.)
as an acquittal. The termination of his Lacedaemonian policy in the jealous and insulting dismissal of their Athenian auxiliaries by the Spartans, and the consequent rupture between the two states was a more serious blow to his popularity. And the victory of his opponents was decided when Ephialtes and Pericles, after a severe struggle, carried their measure for reducing the authority of the aristocratic Areiopagus. Upon this it would seem his ostracism ensued. Soon after its commencement (B. C. 457) a Lacedaemonian army, probably to meet the views of a violent section of the defeated party in Athens, posted itself at Tanagra. The Athenians advanced to meet it: Cimon requested permission to fight in his place; the generals in suspicion refused: he departed, begging his own friends to vindicate his character: they, in number a hundred, placed in the ensuing battle his panoply among them, and fell around it to the last man. Before five years of his exile were fully out, B. C. 453 or 45
Leo'crates (*Lewkra/ths), son of Stroebus, commanded in the great sea-fight off Aegina (B. C. 457), in which the Athenians gave a final defeat to their ancient rivals. Seventy ships were taken, and Leocrates landed and laid siege to the town ; while the Corinthian forces, which, by invading Attica, hoped to relieve it, were defeated by Myronides. (Thuc. 1.105.) Plutarch relates that these two commanders were both of them colleagues of Aristeides in the campaign of Plataea (Plut. Arist. 20). [A.H.
of the above, was one of the commanders of the land forces in the expedition of Xerxes against Greece, B. C. 4 80. (Hdt. 7.82.) Megayzus was the commander of the army which Cimon defeated on the Eurymcdtlon, in uB. C. 466. (Diod. 12.3.) [CIMON.] When the Athenians made their expedition against Egypt, Megabyzus was sent against them with a large army; and having driven them out of Memphis, he shut them up in the island of Prosopitis, which he at last took, after a siege of eighteen months, B. C. 457. (lierod. 3.160; Thuc. 1.109; Diod. 11.74.6.) Ctesias informs us that he was the son-in-law of Xerxes, having married his daughter Amytis; and he ascribes to Megabyzus the service which Herodotus attributes to Zopyrus, namely, the taking of Babylon, after its revolt from Xerxes. (Pers. 22; Diod. 10.17.2; comp. Hdt. 3.153.) Several other incidents of his life are related by Ctesias. (Pers. 27, 30, 33-40.) Two sons of his are mentioned, Zopyrus and Artyphius. (Ctes 37; Hdt. 3.160.) He is alw
Myro'nides (*Murwni/dhs), a skilful and successful Athenian general. In B. C. 457, the Corinthians invaded Megara with the view of relieving Aegina, by drawing away thence a portion of the Athenian troops, which were besieging the chief city of the island. The Athenians, however, who had at the same time another force in Egypt, acting with Inarus, did not recal a single man from any quarter for the protection of Megara: but the old and young men who had been left behind at home, marched out under Myronides, and met the Corinthians in the Megarian territory. After a battle, in which victory inclined, though not decisively, to the Athenians, the Corinthian troops withdrew, and Myronides erected a trophy. But the Corinthians, being reproached at home for leaving the field, returned; and were setting up a rival trophy, when the Athenians made a sally from Megara, and, in the battle which ensued, completely defeated them. The fugitives, in their retreat, entered an enclosure fenced in by
he sister of the poet (Suidas, s. v.). These conflicting accounts have given rise to much dispute among modern writers, but the latter statement, according to which Panyasis was the uncle of Herodotus, has been usually preferred. Panyasis began to be known about B. C. 489, continued in reputation till B. C. 467, in which year he is placed by Suidas, and was put to death by Lygdamis, the tyrant of Halicarnassus, probably about the same time that Herodotus left his native town, that is about B. C. 457 (Clinton, F. H. sub annis 489, 457). Ancient writers mention two poems by Panyasis. Of these the most celebrated was entitled Heracleia (*(Hra/kleia, Athen. xi. pp. 469, d. 498, c.) or Heracleias (*(Hrakleias, Suidas), which gave a detailed accolnmt of the exploits of Heracles. It consisted of fourteen books and nine thousand verses; and it appears, as far as we can judge from the references to it in ancient writers, to have passed over briefly the adventures of the hero which had been r
hialtes seconded his views out of revenge for an offence that had been given him in the council, are notions which, though indeed they have no claims to attention, have been satisfactorily refuted (comp. Müller, Eumenides, 2d Dissert. I. A.) Respecting the nature of the change effected in the jurisdiction of the Areiopagus, the reader is referred to the Dictionary of Antiquities, art. Areiopagus. This success was soon followed by the ostracism of Cimoin, who was charged with Laconism. In B. C. 457 the unfortunate battle of Tanagra took place. The request made by Cimon to be allowed to take part in the engagement was rejected through the influence of the friends of Pericles; and Cimon having left his panoply for his friends to fight round, Pericles, as if in emulation of them, performed prodigies of valour. We do not learn distinctly what part he took in the movements which ensued. The expedition to Egypt he disapproved of; and through his whole career he showed himself averse to tho
Pleisto'anax (*Pleistoa/nac, *Pleistw/nac), the nineteenth king of Sparta in the line of the Agidae, was the eldest son of the Pausanias who conquered at Plataea in B. C. 479. On the death of Pleistarchus, in B. C. 458, without issue, Pleistoanax succeeded to the throne, being yet a minor, so that in the expedition of the Lacedae-monians in behalf of the Dorians against Phocis, in B. C. 457, his uncle Nicomedes, son of Cleombrotus, commanded for him. (Thuc. 1.107; Diod. 11.79; Paus. 1.13, 3.5.) In B. C. 445 he led in person an invasion into Attica, being however, in consequence of his youth, accompanied by Cleandridas as a counsellor. The premature withdrawal of his army from the enemy's territory exposed both Cleandridas and himself to the suspicion of having been bribed by Pericles, and, according to Plutarch, while Cleandridas fled from Sparta and was condemned to death in his absence, the young king was punished bya heavy fine, which he was unable to pay, and was therefore oblige
. 477, with T. Menenius Lanatus. He was sent to carry on the war against the Volsci, but was recalled to oppose the Etruscans, who had taken possession of the Janiculum and crossed the Tiber, after gaining two victories, first over the Fabii at the Cremera, and subsequently over the consul Menenius. In the first battle, which Horatius fought with the Etruscans near the temple of Hope, neither party gained any advantage; but in the second, which took place at the Colline gate, the Romans were slightly the superior. (Liv. 2.51; Dionys. A. R. 9.18, &c.; Diod. 11.53; Gel. 17.21, where he is erroneously called Marcus instead of Caius.) Horatius was consul a second time twenty years afterwards, in B. C. 457, with Q. Minucius Esquilinus Augurinus. He carried on war against the Aequi, whom he defeated, and destroyed Corbio. He died B. C. 453, of the pestilence, which carried off many distinguished men in that year. He was one of the college of augurs. (Liv. 3.30, 32; Dionys. A. R. 10.26, &c.)
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