surgeons endeavored to save a covering of skin for the stump by having it drawn upward previous to making the incision.
In 1679, Lowdham, of Exeter, England, suggested cutting semicircular flaps on one or both sides of a limb, so as to preserve a fleshy cushion to cover the end of the bone.
Both these modes are now in use, and are called the circular and the flap operations.
The latter is the more frequently used.
Amputation was not practised by the Greeks; at least, Hippocrates (B. C. 460) does not refer to it and did not practise it. Celsus notices it (A. D. 30). Cautery, pitch, etc. were used to arrest the bleeding.
The needle and ligature were introduced about 1550, by the French surgeon Pere. He was surgeon to Henry II., Francis II., Charles IX., and Henry III.
of France, and though a Protestant was concealed in the king's chamber on the night of St. Bartholomew.
The king is said to have remarked, There is only one Pere.
A complete set of surgical instruments of bron
s for the sheets of the square sails.
（Saddlery.) Straps passing down each side of the horse's head and connected to the bit-rings.
Milk-curd pressed into a shape and ripened.
Hippocrates (460 B. C.) states that the mode of preparing this food from milk was discovered by the Scythians at a very early date.
There can be little doubt that it was a common article of food among the pastoral nations of Uz, Canaan and Asia Minor, as well as amoit to be violently stirred or shaken by their blind slaves, and separate the part that arises to the surface, as they consider it more valuable and more delicious than that which is collected below it.
This is evidently butter.
Hippocrates (460 B. C.) describes the process more clearly, stating that the lighter portion (butter) rises to the top, and the other part was separated into a liquid and solid portion (curd and whey), of which the former was pressed and dried (cheese).
the smith plunges the loud-hissing axe into cold water to temper it, for hence is the strength of iron, etc., shows clearly that the writer or compiler of the Odyssey, whom we are content to call Homer, lived in a time when iron and steel were forged and tempered.
About 500 B. C., and thereafter, steel was imported into Greece from the Chalybes, a people inhabiting the shore on the southeast of the Black Sea, and the use of bronze for weapons terminated soon after.
Marathon was fought 460 B. C. The steel was called Chalybian, and we retain the name in connection with waters, as Chalybeate springs.
In Asia the Chalybes were noted for their works in iron, from which they obtained great profits. — Xenophon, Anab.
Aristotle mentions that their arenaceous ores were washed, and he also partially describes the operation of making wootz in India; Diodorus Siculus says that in the island of Ethalia the ores were roasted and broken fine before melting.
It was wrought-iron that was