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A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith) 16 16 Browse Search
Pindar, Odes (ed. Diane Arnson Svarlien) 2 2 Browse Search
Andocides, Speeches 1 1 Browse Search
Diodorus Siculus, Library 1 1 Browse Search
Isocrates, Speeches (ed. George Norlin) 1 1 Browse Search
Strabo, Geography (ed. H.C. Hamilton, Esq., W. Falconer, M.A.) 1 1 Browse Search
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Browsing named entities in A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith). You can also browse the collection for 478 BC or search for 478 BC in all documents.

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Aha'la 1. C. Servilius Structus Ahala, consul B. C. 478, died in his year of office, as appears from the Fasti. (Liv. 2.49.)
thens at the invitation of the tyrant Hiipparchus, who sent a galley of fifty oars to fetch him. (Plat. Hipparch. p. 228.) At Athens he became acquainted with Simonides and other poets, whom the taste of Hipparchus had collected round him, and he was admitted to intimacy by other noble families besides the Peisistratidae, among whom he especially celebrated the beauty of Critias, the son of Dropides. (Plat. Charm. p. 157; Berghk's Anacreon, fr. 55.) He died at the age of 85, probably about B. C. 478. (Lucian, Macrob. 100.26.) Simonides wrote two epitaphs upon him (Anthol. Pal. 7.24, 25), the Athenians set up his statue in the Acropolis (Paus. 1.25.1), and the Teians struck his portrait on their coins. (Visconti, Icon. Grecque, pl. 3.6.) The place of his death, however, is uncertain. The second epitaph of Simonides appears to say clearly that he was buried at Teos, whither he is supposed to have returned after the death of Hipparchus (B. C. 514); but there is also a tradition that, aft
Esquili'nus 4. An agnomnen of the VIRGINI TRICOSTI. Almost all the members of the Virginia gens had the surname Tricostus, and those who dwelt on the Esquiline had the surname Esquilinus, just as those living on the Caelian hill had the surname CAELIOMONTANUS. Two members of the gens have the surname Esquilinus, namely, OPITER VIRGINIUS TRICOSTUS ESQUILINUS, who was consul in B. C. 478, filling the place of C. Servilius Structus Ahala, who died in his year of office (Fasti), and his grandson, L. VIRGINIUS TRICOSTUS ESQUILINUS, consular tribune in B. C. 402. The conduct of the siege of Veii was entrusted to the latter and his colleague M'. Sergius Fidenas, but in consequence of their private enmity the campaign was a disastrous one. The Capenates and Falisci advanced to the relief of Veii. The two Roman generals had each the command of a separate camp : Sergius was attacked by the allies and a sally from the town at the same time, and let himself be overpowered by numbers, because he
urse rejected, and he was hailed by the acclamations of the multitude as their preserver and sovereign. (Diod. 11.26; Polyaen. 1.27.1; Ael. VH 6.11.) He did not, however, long survive to enjoy his honours, having been carried off by a dropsy in B. C. 478, only two years after his victory at Himera, and seven from the commencement of his reign over Syracuse, (Diod. 11.38; Arist. Pol. 5.9 ; Schol. ad Pind. Pyth. 1.89; Plnt. de Pyth. Orac. p. 403.) It appears from Aristotle (Aristot. Pol. 5.10; sen see Clinton (F. H. vol. ii. p. 266, &c.), Pausanias (6.9.4, 5, 8.42.8), Dionysius (7.1), and Niebuhr (Rom. Hist. vol. ii. p. 97, note 201). The last writer adopts the date of the Parian chronicle, which he supposes to be taken from Timaeus, according to which Gelon did not begin to reign at Syracuse until B. C. 478; but it seems incredible that Herodotus should have been mistaken in a matter of such public notoriety as the contemporaneity of the battle of Himera with the expedition of Xerxes.
Hieron I. *(Ie/rwn), tyrant of SYRACUSE, was son of Deinomenes and brother of Gelon, whom lie succeeded in the sovereignty, B. C. 478. We know scarcely any thing of his personal history previous to his accession, except that he supported his brother in his various wars, and appears to Have taken an active part in the great victory of Himera, as his share in the glory of that day was commemorated by Gelon himself in the inscription at Delphi which recorded his triumph. (Schol. ad Pind. Pyth. 1.155, 2.115.) It is stated by Diodorus (11.38) that Hieron was appointed by Gelon as his successor, though it appears from other authorities that that prince left an infant son ; hence it may well be suspected that he assumed the government in the first instance only in his nephew's name, and subsequently took possession of it for himself. In either case it is clear that he was virtually sovereign of Syracuse from the time of Gelon's death, but his rule was soon distinguished from that of his bro
Mamerci'nus 1. L. Aemilius Mam. F. MAMERCUS, consul for the first time in B. C. 484 with K. FABIUS VIBULANUS, conquered the Volsci and Aequi, according to Livy, but suffered a defeat from them, according to the statement of Dionysius, who also says that Mamercus was in consequence ashamed to go into the city for the purpose of holding the comitia. (Liv. 2.42; Dionys. A. R. 8.83-87; Diod. 11.38.) He was consul a second time in B. C. 478 with C. Servilius Structus Ahala, and defeated the Veientines before the walls of their city with great slaughter. He subsequently concluded a treaty with them on terms which the senate regarded as too favourable, and was in consequence denied the honour of a triumph. (Liv. 2.49 ; Dionys. A. R. 9.16, 17; Diod. 11.52.) He was consul a third time in B. C. 473 with Vopiscus Julius Julus. For the events of this year see JULUS, No. 3, where the authorities are given. We learn from Dionysius (9.51) that he supported in B. C. 470 the agrarian law, on account
Phormis or PHORMUS (*Fo/rmis, *)Aristot. Pausan.; *Fo/rmos, Athen. Suid.). Bentley is of opinion that the former is the correct mode of spelling (Dissert. upon Phalaris, vol. i. p. 252, ed. 1836). In Themistius he is called *)/Amorfos. He came originally from Maenalus in Arcadia, and having removed to Sicily, became intimate with Gelon, whose children he educated. He distin-guished himself as a soldier, both under Gelon and Hieron his brother, who succeeded, B. C. 478. In gratitude for his martial successes, he dedicated gifts to Zeus at Olympia, and to Apollo at Delphi. Pausanias (5.27) gives a description of the former of these -- two horses and charioteers; and he describes a statue of Phormis engaged in fight, dedicated by Lycortas, a Syracusan. Though the matter has been called in question, there seems to be little or no doubt that this is the same person who is associated by Aristotle with Epicharmus, as one of the originators of comedy, or of a particular form of it. We have t
Polyze'lus (*Polu/zhlos), a Syracusan, son of Deinomenes and brother of Gelon, the tyrant of Syracuse. His name was inscribed together with those of his three brothers on the tripods dedicated by Gelon to commemorate his victory at Himera, B. C. 480, whence we may conclude that Polyzelus himself bore a part in the success of that memorable day. (Schol. ad Pind. pyth. 1.155.) At his death, in B. C. 478, Gelon left the sovereign power to his brother Hieron, but bequeathed the hand of his widow Demarete. the daughter of Theron, together with the command of the army, to Polyzelus, who by this means obtained a degree of power and influence, which quickly excited the jealousy of Hieron. The latter in consequence deputed his brother to assist the Crotoniats, who had applied to him for support against the Sybarites, in hopes that he might perish in the war. Polyzelus, according to one account, refused to comply, and was, in consequence, driven into exile; but other authors state that he unde
n at Locri (Justin, 18.2; Zonar. 8.5.) The Tarentines had demanded that his troops should be withdrawn, if he would not assist them in the field; but Pyrrhus paid no heed to their remonstrances, and retained possession of their town, as well as of Locri, in hopes of being soon able to return to Italy at the head of the Greeks of Sicily, of which island his warm imagination had already pictured him as the sovereign. Pyrrhus remained in Sicily upwards of two ears, namely from the middle of B. C. 478, to the latter end of B. C. 476. At first he met with brilliant success in Sicily. He drove the Carthaginians before him, and took the strongly fortified city of Eryx, in the assault of which he was the first to mount the scaling ladders, and distinguished himself as usual by his daring and impetuous valour. The Carthaginians became so alarmed at his success, that they offered him both ships and money on condition of his forming an alliance with them, although they had only a short time b
e to that of the artist, where there is no decisive evidence to the contrary. Now, in the case of Pythagoras, one of his most celebrated works was the statue of the Olympic victor Astylus of Croton, who conquered in the single and double foot race in three successive Olympiads, and on the last two of these occasions he caused himself to be proclaimed as a Syracusan, in order to gratify Hiero. (Paus. 6.13.1.) Now, supposing (as is natural) that this was during the time that Hliero was king (B. C. 478-467, Ol. 75. 3-78. 2), the last victory of Astylus must have been either in Ol. 77, or Ol. 78; or, even if we admit that Hiero was not yet king, and place the last victory of Astylus in Ol. 75 (Müller, Dorier, Chron. tab.), the earliest date at which we should be compelled to place Pythagoras would be about B. C. 480, and, comparing this with Pliny's date, we should have B. C. 480-430 as the time during which he flourished. This result agrees very well with the indications furnished by his
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