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A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith) 8 8 Browse Search
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Browsing named entities in A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith). You can also browse the collection for 481 BC or search for 481 BC in all documents.

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ring the three great tragic poets of Athens into connexion with the most glorious day in her annals. (Hartung, p. 10.) Thus it has been said that, while Euripides then first saw the light, Aeschylus in the maturity of manhood fought in the battle, and Sophocles, a beautiful boy of 15, took part in the chorus at the festival which celebrated the victory. If again we follow the exact date of Eratosthenes, who represents Euripides as 75 at his death in B. C. 406, his birth must be assigned to B. C. 481, as Miller places it. It has also been said that he received his name in commemoration of the battle of Artemisium, which took place near the Euripus not long before he was born, and in the same year; but Euripides was not a new name, and belonged, as we have seen, to an earlier tragic writer. (See, too, Thuc. 2.70, 79.) With respect to the station in life of his parents, we may safely reject the account given in Stobaeus (see Barnes, Eur. Vit. § 5), that his father was a Boeotian, banishe
e, in B. C. 406, Hellanicus was still engaged in writing; but the vague and indefinite expression of that scholiast does not warrant such an inference, and it is moreover clear from Thucydides (1.97), that in B. C. 404 or 403 Hellanicus was no longer alive. Another authority, an anonymous biographer of Euripides (p. 134 in Westermann's Vitarum Scriptores Graeci minores, Brunswick, 1845), states that Hellanicus was born on the day of the battle of Salamis, that is, on the 20th of Boedromion B. C. 481, and that he received his name from the victory of *(Ella/s over the barbarians; but this account is too much like an invention of some grammarian to account for the name Hellanicus, and deserves no credit; and among the various contradictory statements we are inclined to adopt that of Pamphila. Respecting the life of Hellanicus we are altogether in the dark, and we only learn from Suidas that he died at Perperene, a town on the coast of Asia Minor opposite to Lesbos ; we may, however, pre
n the comitia centuriata. He therefore supposes that the Icilian law was enacted in B. C. 471, in which year a Sp. Icilius is mentioned as one of the first five tribunes elected by the tribes. (Liv. 2.58.) It is therefore most probable that this law was not passed till B. C. 471; but there is no reason for believing that the Sp. Icilius who was tribune in B. C. 492, is a different person from the tribune of B. C. 471. Dionysius speaks (9.1) of a Sp. Icilius, who was tribune of the plebs in B. C. 481, and who attempted to force the patricians to pass an agrarian law, by preventing them from levying troops to carry on the war against the Aequi and Veientes. This tribune is called by Livy (2.43), Sp. Licinius ; but if the name in Dionysius is correct, he is probably the same as the tribune of B. C. 492, so that Sp. Icilius would have been tribune for the first time in 492, the second time in 481, and the third time in 471. In the year after his first tribunate (B. C. 491), according to
Lici'nius 2. SP. LICINIUS, tribune of the plebs, B. C. 481, according to Livy (2.43). Dionysius (9.1) gives the name Sp. Icilius [ICILIUS, No. 1]; and in favour of the latter there is the fact, that in no other instance do we find the praenomen Spurius in the Licinia gens.
Medulli'nus 2. Sp. Furius Fusus, was consul in B. C. 481. Livy says that his consulate was occupied by tribuntian dissensions, and an inroad into the territory of Veii (2.43). Dionysius represents him as a popular consul (dhmo/tikos), and assigns him a successful campaign against the Atquians 9.1, 2).
ny; and in reply to the remarks of his friends on the change in his habits, he said, that the trophy of Miltiades would not let him sleep. Others thought that the victory of Marathon had terminated the Persian war; but Themistocles foresaw that it was only the beginning of a greater struggle, and it was his policy to prepare Athens for it. His rival Aristides was ostracized in B. C. 483, to which event Themistocles contributed; and from this time he was the political leader in Athens. In B. C. 481 he was Archon Eponymus. The chronology of the early part of the life of Themistocles is uncertain. It was perhaps before his archonship, or it may have been in that year that he persuaded the Athenians to employ the produce of the silver mines of Laurium in building ships, instead of distributing it among the Athenian citizens. (Hdt. 7.144; Pint. Themist. 100.4.) The motive which he suggested was that the fleet of Athens should be made a match for that of Aegina, with which state Athens wa
rted by no positive testimony, and has been rejected by most subsequent scholars. (Göttling, Römische Staatsverfassung, p. 308 ; Becker, Handbuch der Römischen Alterthümer, vol. ii. pt. ii. p. 93.) There can be little doubt that the consuls were at all times, without exception, elected by the comitia centuriata; and there is no difficulty in understanding how the patricians were able to carry the elections of their own candidates at these comitia. (Comp. Becker, ibid. p. 12, note 19.) In B. C. 481 K. Fabius was consul a second time with Sp. Furius Medullinus Fuscus. At the beginning of his consulship he opposed the attempts of the tribune Sp. Icilius (Licinius), who endeavoured to carry an agrarian law by preventing the consuls from levying troops against the Veientes and Aequi, who had taken up arms and made an inroad into the Roman territory. Icilius was likewise opposed by his own colleagues, and thus the troops were inrolled, and K. Fabius marched against the Veientes. (The comm
ound traversed by the Persian army, the mere fact that he gives a most minute description of this canal (7.37) ought to convince every one of its existence even without any further evidence, since he certainly never said that he saw what he did not see. There are, however, the most distinct traces of it at the present day, as is shown by Lieutenant Wolfe, who has given an account of its present condition in the article " Athos" which he wrote in the " Penny Cyclopaedia." In the autumn of B. C. 481 Xerxes arrived at Sardis, and early in the spring of the following year commenced his march towards the Hellespont. So great was the number of the army that it was seven days and seven nights in crossing the bridges without a moment of intermission. The march was continued through the Thracian Chersonese till it reached the plain of Doriscus, which is near the sea, and is traversed by the river Hebrus. The army was here joined by the fleet, which had not entered the Hellespont, but had sai