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A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith) 14 14 Browse Search
Knight's Mechanical Encyclopedia (ed. Knight) 2 2 Browse Search
Pausanias, Description of Greece 1 1 Browse Search
Pliny the Elder, The Natural History (ed. John Bostock, M.D., F.R.S., H.T. Riley, Esq., B.A.) 1 1 Browse Search
Samuel Ball Platner, Thomas Ashby, A Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome 1 1 Browse Search
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Pausanias, Description of Greece, Elis 2, chapter 6 (search)
Astycles. Local legend, however, makes him the son, not of this man, but of the river Caecinus, which divides Locris from the land of Rhegium and produces the marvel of the grasshoppers. For the grasshoppers within Locris as far as the Caecinus sing just like others, but across the Caecinus in the territory of Rhegium they do not utter a sound. This river then, according to tradition, was the father of Euthymus, who, though he won the prize for boxing at the seventy-fourth Olympic Festival484 B.C., was not to be so successful at the next. For Theagenes of Thasos, wishing to win the prizes for boxing and for the pancratium at the same Festival, overcame Euthymus at boxing, though he had not the strength to gain the wild olive in the pancratium, because he was already exhausted in his fight with Euthymus. Thereupon the umpires fined Theagenes a talent, to be sacred to the god, and a talent for the harm done to Euthymus, holding that it was merely to spite him that he entered for the bo
Pliny the Elder, The Natural History (ed. John Bostock, M.D., F.R.S., H.T. Riley, Esq., B.A.), BOOK II. AN ACCOUNT OF THE WORLD AND THE ELEMENTS., CHAP. 113.—THE HARMONICAL PROPORTION OF THE UNIVERSE. (search)
cal subjects., PytheasOf Massilia, now Marseilles, a celebrated navigator who flourished about the time of Alexander the Great. In his voyages he visited Britain and Thule, of which he probably gave some account in his work "on the Ocean." He has been wrongfully accused of falsehood by Strabo. Another work written by him was his "Periplus," or 'Circumnavigation' from Gades to the Tanais, probably, in this instance, the Elbe., HerodotusOf Halicarnassus, the father of Grecian history; born B.C. 484. Besides his great work which has come down to us, he is supposed to have written a history of Arabia., AristotleProbably the most learned of the Greek philosophers. His works were exceedingly numerous, and those which have survived to us treat of natural history, metaphysics, physical science, ethics, logic, and general literature., CtesiasA native of Cnidus in Caria, and private physician to Artaxerxes Mnemon, having been made prisoner by him at the battle of Cunaxa. He wrote a History of P
Samuel Ball Platner, Thomas Ashby, A Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome, Chronological Index to Dateable Monuments (search)
Chronological Index to Dateable Monuments B.C. 509 Temple of Juppiter Capitolinus dedicated, 297. of Dea Carna vowed (and built some years later), 148. 501-493of Saturn, 463. 499of Castor vowed, 102. 496of Cares, Liber and Libera vowed, 109. Lacus Juturnae, 311. 495Temple of Mercur dedicated, 339. 493of Ceres, Liber and Libera dedicated, 109 484of Castor dedicated, 102 466Aedes of Semo Sancus dedicated, 469. 456Part of Aventine given to Plebs, 67. 445Lacus Curtius (?), 310. 439Conlumna Minucia, 133. 435Villa Publica built, 581. 433Temple of Apollo vowed, 5. 430of Apollo dedicated, 15. 395of Mater Matuta restored, 330. 392of Juno Regina on Aventine dedicated, 290. 390The Gallic fire: debris in Comitium, 135, 451; Regia burnt, 441; Templ of Vesta burnt, 557. Ara Aii Locutii dedicated by Senate, 3. 389(after). Via Latina, 564. 388Area Capitolina enlarged, 48. Temple of Mars on Via Appia, 328. 384Patri
Achaeus (*)Axaio/s) of Eretria in Euboea, a tragic poet, was born B. C. 484, the year in which Aeschylus gained his first victory, and four years before the birth of Euripides. In B. C. 477, he contended with Sophocles and Euripides, and though he subsequently brought out many dramas, according to some as many as thirty or forty, he nevertheless only gained the prize once. The fragments of Achacus contain much strange mythology, and his expressions were often forced and obscure. (Athen. 10.451c.) Still in the satyrical drama he must have possessed considerable merit, for in this department some ancient critics thought him inferior only to Aeschylus. (D. L. 2.133.) The titles of seven of his satyrical dramas and of ten of his tragedies are still known. The extant fragments of his pieces have been collected, and edited by Urlichs, Bonn, 1834. (Suidas, s. v.) This Achaeus should not be confounded with a later tragic writer of the same name, who was a native of Syracuse. According to Sui
Achae'menes 2. The son of Darius I. was appointed by his brother Xerxes governor of Egypt, B. C. 484. He commanded the Egyptian fleet in the expedition of Xerxes against Greece, and strongly opposed the prudent advice of Demaratus. When Egypt revolted under Inarus the Libyan in B. C. 460, Achaemenes was sent to subdue it, but was defeated and killed in battle by Inarus. (Hdt. 3.12, 7.7, 97, 236; Diod. 11.74.)
agoras, and by others as the son of Numa, while a third account traces his origin to Ascanius, who had two sons, Julius and Aemylos. (Plut. Aemil. 2, Num. 8, 21; Festus, s. v. Aemil.) Amulius is also mentioned as one of the ancestors of the Aemilii. (Sil. Ital. 8.297.) It seems pretty clear that the Aemilii were of Sabine origin; and Festus derives the name Mamercus from the Oscan, Mamers in that language being the same as Mars. The Sabines spoke Oscan. Since then the Aemilii were supposed to have come to Rome in the time of Numa, and Numa was said to have been intimate with Pythagoras, we can see the origin of the legend which makes the ancestor of the house the son of Pythagoras. The first member of the house who obtained the consulship was L. Aemilius Mamercus, in B. C. 484. The family-names of this gens are : BARBULA, BUCA, LEPIDUS, MAMERCUS or MAMERCINUS, PAPUS, PAULLUS, REGILLUS, SCAURUS. Of these names Buca, Lepidus, Paullus, and Scaurus are the only ones that occur on coins.
he made his first appearance as a competitor for the prize of tragedy, against Choerilus and Pratinas, without however being successful. Sixteen years afterward (B. C. 484), Aeschylus gained his first victory. The titles of the pieces which he then brought out are not known, but his competitors were most probably Pratinas and Phrynne piece. The whole number of victories attributed to Aeschylus amounted to thirteen, most of which were gained by him in the interval of sixteen years, between B. C. 484, the year of his first tragic victory, and the close of the Persian war by Cimon's double victory at the Eurymedon, B. C. 470. (Bode, Gesch. der Hellen. Dichtkuns for such services contributed somewhat to a due appreciation of the poet's merits, and to the tragic victory which he gained soon after the battle of Marathon (B. C. 484) and before that of Salamis. Nor can we wonder at the peculiar vividness and spirit with which he portrays the " pomp and circumstance" of war, as in the Persae,
e age of three months he was carried to Megara, in Sicily; or, according to the account preserved by Suidas, he went thither at a much later period, with Cadmus (B. C. 484). Thence he removed to Syracuse, with the other inhabitants of Megara, when the latter city was destroyed by Gelon (B. C. 484 or 483). Here he spent the remaindeB. C. 484 or 483). Here he spent the remainder of his life, which was prolonged throughout the reign of Hieron, at whose court Epicharmus associated with the other great writers of the time, and among them, with Aeschylus, who seems to have had some influence on his dramatic course. He died at the age of ninety (B. C. 450), or, ac cording to Lucian, ninety-seven (B. C. 443). er. (Diog. Laert. l.c.; Suid. s.v. Plut. Numa, 8.) We may therefore consider the life of Epicharmus as divisible into two parts, namely, his life at Megara up to B. C. 484, during which he was engaged in the study of philosophy, both physical and metaphysical, and the remainder of his life, which he spent at Syracuse, as a comic po
leads us to suppose that this Chian Herodotus was connected with him in some way or other, but it is possible that the mere identity of name induced the historian to notice him in that particular manner. The birth year of Herodotus is accurately stated by Pamphila (apud Gell. 15.23), a learned woman of the time of the emperor Nero: Herodotus, she says, was 53 years old at the beginning of the Peloponnesian war; now as this war broke out in B. C. 431, it follows that Herodotus was born in B. C. 484, or six years after the battle of Marathon, and four years before the battles of Thermopylae and Salamis. He could not, therefore, have had a personal knowledge of the great struggles which he afterwards described, but he saw and spoke with persons who had taken an active part in them. (9.16). That he survived the beginning of the Peloponnesian war is attested by Pamphila and Dionysius of Halicarnassus (Jud. de Thuc. 5 ; comp. Diod. 2.32; Euseb. Chron. p. 168, who however places Herodotus
Mamerci'nus 1. L. Aemilius Mam. F. MAMERCUS, consul for the first time in B. C. 484 with K. FABIUS VIBULANUS, conquered the Volsci and Aequi, according to Livy, but suffered a defeat from them, according to the statement of Dionysius, who also says that Mamercus was in consequence ashamed to go into the city for the purpose of holding the comitia. (Liv. 2.42; Dionys. A. R. 8.83-87; Diod. 11.38.) He was consul a second time in B. C. 478 with C. Servilius Structus Ahala, and defeated the Veientines before the walls of their city with great slaughter. He subsequently concluded a treaty with them on terms which the senate regarded as too favourable, and was in consequence denied the honour of a triumph. (Liv. 2.49 ; Dionys. A. R. 9.16, 17; Diod. 11.52.) He was consul a third time in B. C. 473 with Vopiscus Julius Julus. For the events of this year see JULUS, No. 3, where the authorities are given. We learn from Dionysius (9.51) that he supported in B. C. 470 the agrarian law, on account
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