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A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith) 14 14 Browse Search
Knight's Mechanical Encyclopedia (ed. Knight) 2 2 Browse Search
Pausanias, Description of Greece 1 1 Browse Search
Pliny the Elder, The Natural History (ed. John Bostock, M.D., F.R.S., H.T. Riley, Esq., B.A.) 1 1 Browse Search
Samuel Ball Platner, Thomas Ashby, A Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome 1 1 Browse Search
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Browsing named entities in A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith). You can also browse the collection for 484 BC or search for 484 BC in all documents.

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Achaeus (*)Axaio/s) of Eretria in Euboea, a tragic poet, was born B. C. 484, the year in which Aeschylus gained his first victory, and four years before the birth of Euripides. In B. C. 477, he contended with Sophocles and Euripides, and though he subsequently brought out many dramas, according to some as many as thirty or forty, he nevertheless only gained the prize once. The fragments of Achacus contain much strange mythology, and his expressions were often forced and obscure. (Athen. 10.451c.) Still in the satyrical drama he must have possessed considerable merit, for in this department some ancient critics thought him inferior only to Aeschylus. (D. L. 2.133.) The titles of seven of his satyrical dramas and of ten of his tragedies are still known. The extant fragments of his pieces have been collected, and edited by Urlichs, Bonn, 1834. (Suidas, s. v.) This Achaeus should not be confounded with a later tragic writer of the same name, who was a native of Syracuse. According to Sui
Achae'menes 2. The son of Darius I. was appointed by his brother Xerxes governor of Egypt, B. C. 484. He commanded the Egyptian fleet in the expedition of Xerxes against Greece, and strongly opposed the prudent advice of Demaratus. When Egypt revolted under Inarus the Libyan in B. C. 460, Achaemenes was sent to subdue it, but was defeated and killed in battle by Inarus. (Hdt. 3.12, 7.7, 97, 236; Diod. 11.74.)
agoras, and by others as the son of Numa, while a third account traces his origin to Ascanius, who had two sons, Julius and Aemylos. (Plut. Aemil. 2, Num. 8, 21; Festus, s. v. Aemil.) Amulius is also mentioned as one of the ancestors of the Aemilii. (Sil. Ital. 8.297.) It seems pretty clear that the Aemilii were of Sabine origin; and Festus derives the name Mamercus from the Oscan, Mamers in that language being the same as Mars. The Sabines spoke Oscan. Since then the Aemilii were supposed to have come to Rome in the time of Numa, and Numa was said to have been intimate with Pythagoras, we can see the origin of the legend which makes the ancestor of the house the son of Pythagoras. The first member of the house who obtained the consulship was L. Aemilius Mamercus, in B. C. 484. The family-names of this gens are : BARBULA, BUCA, LEPIDUS, MAMERCUS or MAMERCINUS, PAPUS, PAULLUS, REGILLUS, SCAURUS. Of these names Buca, Lepidus, Paullus, and Scaurus are the only ones that occur on coins.
he made his first appearance as a competitor for the prize of tragedy, against Choerilus and Pratinas, without however being successful. Sixteen years afterward (B. C. 484), Aeschylus gained his first victory. The titles of the pieces which he then brought out are not known, but his competitors were most probably Pratinas and Phrynne piece. The whole number of victories attributed to Aeschylus amounted to thirteen, most of which were gained by him in the interval of sixteen years, between B. C. 484, the year of his first tragic victory, and the close of the Persian war by Cimon's double victory at the Eurymedon, B. C. 470. (Bode, Gesch. der Hellen. Dichtkuns for such services contributed somewhat to a due appreciation of the poet's merits, and to the tragic victory which he gained soon after the battle of Marathon (B. C. 484) and before that of Salamis. Nor can we wonder at the peculiar vividness and spirit with which he portrays the " pomp and circumstance" of war, as in the Persae,
e age of three months he was carried to Megara, in Sicily; or, according to the account preserved by Suidas, he went thither at a much later period, with Cadmus (B. C. 484). Thence he removed to Syracuse, with the other inhabitants of Megara, when the latter city was destroyed by Gelon (B. C. 484 or 483). Here he spent the remaindeB. C. 484 or 483). Here he spent the remainder of his life, which was prolonged throughout the reign of Hieron, at whose court Epicharmus associated with the other great writers of the time, and among them, with Aeschylus, who seems to have had some influence on his dramatic course. He died at the age of ninety (B. C. 450), or, ac cording to Lucian, ninety-seven (B. C. 443). er. (Diog. Laert. l.c.; Suid. s.v. Plut. Numa, 8.) We may therefore consider the life of Epicharmus as divisible into two parts, namely, his life at Megara up to B. C. 484, during which he was engaged in the study of philosophy, both physical and metaphysical, and the remainder of his life, which he spent at Syracuse, as a comic po
leads us to suppose that this Chian Herodotus was connected with him in some way or other, but it is possible that the mere identity of name induced the historian to notice him in that particular manner. The birth year of Herodotus is accurately stated by Pamphila (apud Gell. 15.23), a learned woman of the time of the emperor Nero: Herodotus, she says, was 53 years old at the beginning of the Peloponnesian war; now as this war broke out in B. C. 431, it follows that Herodotus was born in B. C. 484, or six years after the battle of Marathon, and four years before the battles of Thermopylae and Salamis. He could not, therefore, have had a personal knowledge of the great struggles which he afterwards described, but he saw and spoke with persons who had taken an active part in them. (9.16). That he survived the beginning of the Peloponnesian war is attested by Pamphila and Dionysius of Halicarnassus (Jud. de Thuc. 5 ; comp. Diod. 2.32; Euseb. Chron. p. 168, who however places Herodotus
Mamerci'nus 1. L. Aemilius Mam. F. MAMERCUS, consul for the first time in B. C. 484 with K. FABIUS VIBULANUS, conquered the Volsci and Aequi, according to Livy, but suffered a defeat from them, according to the statement of Dionysius, who also says that Mamercus was in consequence ashamed to go into the city for the purpose of holding the comitia. (Liv. 2.42; Dionys. A. R. 8.83-87; Diod. 11.38.) He was consul a second time in B. C. 478 with C. Servilius Structus Ahala, and defeated the Veientines before the walls of their city with great slaughter. He subsequently concluded a treaty with them on terms which the senate regarded as too favourable, and was in consequence denied the honour of a triumph. (Liv. 2.49 ; Dionys. A. R. 9.16, 17; Diod. 11.52.) He was consul a third time in B. C. 473 with Vopiscus Julius Julus. For the events of this year see JULUS, No. 3, where the authorities are given. We learn from Dionysius (9.51) that he supported in B. C. 470 the agrarian law, on account
ther of the preceding, was quaestor parricidii in B. C. 485, and along with his colleague L. Valerius accused Sp. Cassius Viscellinus, who was in consequence condemned by the votes of the populus. Although the name of the Fabii had become hateful to the plebeians in consequence of Q. Fabius, who was consul this year, depriving the soldiers of the booty they had gained in the war, nevertheless the patricians carried the election of K. Fabius, who was accordingly consul in the following year B. C. 484 with L. Aemilius Mamercus. Kaeso took an active part with his colleague in opposing the agrarian law, which the tribunes of the people attempted to bring forward. According to Dionysius Kaeso came to the assistance of his colleague, who had been defeated by the Volsci, but Livy says nothing of Kaeso, and represents Mamercus as conquering the Volsci. (Liv. 2.41, 42; Dionys. A. R. 8.77, foil., 8.82-86.) Niebuhr supposes that a great change in the constitution was effected on the election of
Xanthippus (*Ca/nqippos). 1. The son of Ariphron and father of Pericles. In B. C. 490, he impeached Miltiades on his return from his unsuccessful expedition against the island of Paros. In B. C. 484 he left Athens together with the other inhabitants on the approach of Xerxes, and in the following year (B. C. 479) he succeeded Themistocles as commander of the Athenian fleet. He commanded the Athenians at the decisive battle of Mycale, which was fought on the coast of Ionia on the same day as the battle of Plataea, September, B. C. 470. The Grecian fleet then sailed to the Hellespont; and when they found that the bridge had been broken down, Leotychides and the Peloponnesians returned home forthwith. Xanthippus, however, remained with the Athenian fleet in order to subdue the Chersonese, where several of the Athenians had previously held considerable property. The Persians threw themselves into the town of Sestos, to which Xanthippus laid siege, and which was obliged to surrender ear
each laid claim to the succession; but Dareius decided in favour of Xerxes, no doubt through the influence of his mother Atossa, who completely ruled Dareius. Xerxes succeeded his father at the beginning of B. C. 485. Dareius had died in the midst of his preparations against Greece, which had been interrupted by a revolt of the Egyptians. The first care of Xerxes was to reduce the latter people to subjection. He accordingly invaded Egypt at the beginning of the second year of his reign (B. C. 484), compelled the people again to submit to the Persian yoke, and then returned to Persia, leaving his brother Achaemenes, governor of Egypt. The next four years were devoted to preparations for the invasion of Greece. It was his object to collect a mighty armament, which might not simply be sufficient to conquer Europe, but which might display the power and magnificence of the greatest monarch of the world. Troops were gathered together from all quarters of the wide-spread Persian empire, a