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A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith) 18 18 Browse Search
M. Tullius Cicero, De Officiis: index (ed. Walter Miller) 4 4 Browse Search
Knight's Mechanical Encyclopedia (ed. Knight) 3 3 Browse Search
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Browsing named entities in A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith). You can also browse the collection for 490 BC or search for 490 BC in all documents.

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Artaphernes 2. A son of the former. After the unsuccessful enterprise of Mardonius against Greece in B. C. 492, king Dareius placed Datis and his nephew Artaphernes at the head of the forces which were to chastise Athens and Eretria. Artaphernes, though superior in rank, seems to have been inferior in military skill to Datis, who was in reality the commander of the Persian army. The troops assembled in Cilicia, and here they were taken on board 600 ships. This fleet first sailed to Samos, and thence to the Cyclades. Naxos was taken and laid in ashes, and all the islands submitted to the Persians. In Euboea, Carystus and Eretria also fell into their hands. After this the Persian army landed at Marathon. Here the Persians were defeated in the memorable battle of Marathon, B. C. 490, whereupon Datis and Artaphernes sailed back to Asia. When Xerxes invaded Greece, B. C. 480, Artaphernes commanded the Lydians and Mysians. (Hdt. 6.94, 116, 7.10.2, 74; Aeschyl. Pers. 21.)
A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), Hipponicus II. or Hipponicus Ammon (search)
Hipponicus II. or Hipponicus Ammon 3. HIPPONICUS II., surnamed Ammon, son of Callias I., is said to have increased his wealth considerably by the treasures of a Persian general, which had been entrusted to Diomnestus, a man of Eretria, on the first invasion of that place by the Persians. The invading army being all destroyed Diomnestus kept the money; but his heirs, on the second Persian invasion, transmitted it to Hipponicus at Athens, and with him it ultimately remained, as all the captive Eretrians (comp. Hdt. 6.118) were sent to Asia. This story is given by Athenaeus (xii. pp. 536, f., 537, a.) on the authority of Heracleides of Pontus; but it is open to much suspicion from its inconsistency with the account of Herodotus, who mentions only one invasion of Eretria, and that a successful one B. C. 490. (Hdt. 6.99-101.) Possibly the anecdote, like that of Callias lakko/tloutos below, was one of the modes in which the gossips of Athens accounted for the large fortune of the family.
Calli'machus (*Kalli/maxos). 1. Of the tribe of Aiantis and the dh=mos of Aphidna, held the office of Polemarch, B. C. 490, and in that capacity commanded the right wing of the Athenian army at Marathon, where he was slain, after behaving with much gallantry. In the battle he is said to have vowed to Artemis a heifer for every enemy he should slay. By the persuasion of Miltiades he had given his casting vote for fighting, when the voices of the ten generals were equally divided on the question. This is the last recorded instance of the Polemarch performing the military duties which his name implies. Callimachus was conspicuously figured in the fresco painting of the battle of Marathon, by Polygnotus, in the stoa\ poiki/lh. (Hdt. 6.109-114; Plut. Aristid. et Cat. Maj. 2, Sympos. 1.8.3; Schol. ad Aristoph. Eq. 658; Paus. 1.15
Cameri'nus 2. Q. Sulpicius Camerinus Cornutus, consul B. C. 490 with Sp. Larcius Flavus. He was afterwards one of the embassy sent to intercede with Coriolanus when the latter was advancing against Rome. (Dionys. A. R. 7.68, 8.22.)
A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), (search)
Rome, headed by Veturia, and Volumnia, the wife of Coriolanus, with his two little children, came to his tent. His mother's reproaches, and the tears of his wife, and the other matrons bent his purpose. He led back his army, and lived in exile among the Volscians till his death. On the spot where he yielded to his mother's words, a temple was dedicated to Fortuna Muliebris, and Valeria was the first priestess. Such is the substance of the legend. The date assigned to it in the annals is B. C. 490. Its inconsistency with the traces of real history which have come down to us have been pointed out by Niebuhr, who has also shewn that if his banishment be placed some twenty years later, and his attack on the Romans about ten years after that, the groundwork of the story is reconcileable with history. The account of his condemnation is not applicable to the state of things earlier than B. C. 470, about which time a famine happened, while Hiero was tyrant of Syracuse, and might have been
Cynaegei'rus (*Kunai/geiros), son of Euphorion and brother of the poet Aeschylus, distinguished himself by his valour at the battle of Marathon, B. C. 490. According to Herodotus, when the Persians had fled and were endeavouring to escape by sea, Cynaegeirus seized one of their ships to keep it back, but fell with his right hand cut off. The story lost nothing by transmission. The next version related that Cynaegeirus, on the loss of his right hand, grasped the enemy's vessel with his left; and at length we arrive at the acme of the ludicrous in the account of Justin. here the hero, having successively lost both his hands, hangs (on by his teeth, and even in his mutilated state fights desperately with the last mentioned weapons, "like a rabid wild beast!" (Hdt. 6.114; Suid. s. v. *Kunai/geiros; Just. 2.9; V. Max. 3.2.22; comp. Sueton. Jul. 68.) [E.
Datis (*Da=tis), a Mede, who, together with Artaphernes, had the command of the forces which were sent by Dareius Ilystaspis against Eretria and Athens, and which were finally defeated at Marathon in B. C. 490. (Hdt. 6.94, &c.) [ARTAPHERNES, No. 2.] When the armament was on its way to Greece through the Aegean sea, the Delians fled in alarm from their island to Tenos; but Datis re-assured them, professing that his own feelings, as well as the commands of the king, would lead him to spare and respect the birthplace of " the two gods." The obvious explanation of this conduct, as arising from a notion of the correspondence of Apollo and Artemis with the sun and moon, is rejected by Müller in favour of a far less probable hypothesis. (Hdt. 6.97 ; Müller, Dor. ii 5.6, 6.10; Thirlwall's Greece, vol. ii. p. 231; Spanheim, ad Callim. Hymn. in Del. 255.) The religious reverence of Datis is further illustrated by the anecdote of his restoring the statue of Apollo which some Phoenicians in his
A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), (search)
tory. His name is generally coupled with that of Herminius (Dionys. A. R. 5.22, 23, 24, 36; Liv. 2.10, 11), and in the original lays they were the two warriors who stood beside Horatius Cocles in his defence of the bridge. [COCLES.] Mr. Macaulay (Lays of Anc. Rome, " Horatius," st. 30) preserves this feature of the story, and adopts Niebuhr's reason for it (Hist. Rome, i. p. 542), that one represented the tribe of the Ramnes, and the other that of the Titienses. It is worth notice, however, that at the battle of the Lake Regillus, where all the heroes meet together for the last time, the name of Herminius appears, but not that of Lartius. (Dionys. A. R. 5.3, &c.; Liv. 2.19, &c.) Lartius Flavus was consul a second time in B. C. 490 (Dionys. A. R. 7.68) ; warden of the city (5.75, 8.64); one of the five envoys sent to the Volscian camp when Coriolanus besieged Rome (8.72); and interrex for holding the consular comitia B. C. 480 (8.90), in which year he counselled war with Veii (ib. 91).
s said that 300 ships and 20,000 men were lost; and Mardonius himself, on his passage through Macedonia, was attacked at night by the Brygians, a Thracian tribe, who slaughtered a great portion of his army. He remained in the country till he had reduced them to submission; but his force was so weakened by these successive disasters, that he was obliged to return to Asia. His failure was visited with the displeasure of the king, and he was superseded in the command by Datis and Artaphernes, B. C. 490. On the accession of Xerxes, in B. C. 485, Mardonius, who was high in his favour, and was connected with him by blood as well as by marriage, was one of the chief instigators of the expedition against Greece, with the government of which he hoped to be invested after its conquest; and he was appointed one of the generals of the whole land army, with the exception of the thousand Immortals, whom Hydarnes led. After the battle of Salamis (B. C. 480), he became alarmed for the consequences of
y Thiersch (Ueber die Epochen der bildenden Kunst unter den Grieclxeu, p. 113, &c.), place Pheidias almost at the beginning of the fifth century B. C., making him already a young artist of some distinction at the time of the battle of Marathon, B. C. 490; and that on the following grounds. Pausanias tells us (1.28.2) that the colossal bronze statue of Athena Promachus, in the Acropolis of Athens, was made by Pheidias, out of the tithe of the spoil taken from the Medes who disembarked at Marathoto see what opportunities were furnished for the cultivation of art, and then compare the probabilities thus suggested with the known history of the art of statuary and sculpture. In the period immediately following the battle of Marathon, in B. C. 490, we may be sure that the attention of the Athenians was divided between the effects of the recent struggle and the preparation for its repetition; and there could have been but little leisure and but small resources for the cultivation of art.
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