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A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith) 11 11 Browse Search
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Browsing named entities in A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith). You can also browse the collection for 492 BC or search for 492 BC in all documents.

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caused them to retire, under pretence of arraying them more beautifully, and introduced in their stead some Macedonian youths, dressed in female attire, who slew the Persians. As the Persians did not return, Megabazus sent Bubares with some troops into Macedonia; but Alexander escaped the danger by giving his sister Gygaea in marriage to the Persian general. According to Justin, Alexander succeeded his father in the kingdom soon after these events. (Hdt. 5.17-21, 8.136 ; Justin, 7.2-4.) In B. C. 492, Macedonia was obliged to submit to the Persian general Mardonius (Hdt. 6.44); and in Xerxes' invasion of Greece (B. C. 480), Alexander accompanied the Persian army. He gained the confidence of Mardonius, and was sent by him to Athens after the battle of Salamis, to propose peace to the Athenians, which he strongly recommended, under the conviction that it was impossible to contend with the Persians. He was unsuccessful in his mission ; but though he continued in the Persian army, he was a
Artaphernes 2. A son of the former. After the unsuccessful enterprise of Mardonius against Greece in B. C. 492, king Dareius placed Datis and his nephew Artaphernes at the head of the forces which were to chastise Athens and Eretria. Artaphernes, though superior in rank, seems to have been inferior in military skill to Datis, who was in reality the commander of the Persian army. The troops assembled in Cilicia, and here they were taken on board 600 ships. This fleet first sailed to Samos, and thence to the Cyclades. Naxos was taken and laid in ashes, and all the islands submitted to the Persians. In Euboea, Carystus and Eretria also fell into their hands. After this the Persian army landed at Marathon. Here the Persians were defeated in the memorable battle of Marathon, B. C. 490, whereupon Datis and Artaphernes sailed back to Asia. When Xerxes invaded Greece, B. C. 480, Artaphernes commanded the Lydians and Mysians. (Hdt. 6.94, 116, 7.10.2, 74; Aeschyl. Pers. 21.)
Auguri'nus 2. P. Minucius Augurinus, consul B. C. 492, was chiefly engaged in his consulship in obtaining a supply of corn from different countries, on account of the famine at Rome. (Liv. 2.34; Dionys. A. R. 7.1; Oros. 2.5.)
Cleome'des (*Kleomh/dhs), of the island Astypalaea, an athlete, of whom Pausanias (6.9) and Plutarch (Plut. Rom. 28) record the following legend :--In Ol. 72 (B. C. 492) he killed Iccus, his opponent, in a boxing-umatch, at the Olympic games, and the judges (*E(llanodi/kai) decided that he had been guilty of unfair play, and punished him with the loss of the prize. Stung to madness by the disgrace, he returned to Astypalaea, and there in his frenzy he shook down the pillar which supported the roof of a boys' school, crushing all who were in it beneath the ruins. The Astypalaeans preparing to stone him, he fled for refuge to the temple of Athena, and got into a chest, which his pursuers, having vainly attempted to open it, at length broke to pieces; but no Cleomedes was there. They sent accordingly to consult the Delphic oracle, and received the following answer:-- u(/patos h(rw/wn *Kleomh/dhs *)Astupalaieu/s o(/n qusi/ais tima=q' w(s mhke/ti qnhto\n e)o/nta.[E.
to have been elected one of the first tribunes, upon the establishment of the office in B. C. 493; but he was chosen tribune of the plebs for the following year (B. C. 492). In his tribunate he vehemently attacked the senate on account of the dearness of provisions, and as the patricians attempted to put him down, he introduced andv. 2.58.) It is therefore most probable that this law was not passed till B. C. 471; but there is no reason for believing that the Sp. Icilius who was tribune in B. C. 492, is a different person from the tribune of B. C. 471. Dionysius speaks (9.1) of a Sp. Icilius, who was tribune of the plebs in B. C. 481, and who attempted to fo the Aequi and Veientes. This tribune is called by Livy (2.43), Sp. Licinius ; but if the name in Dionysius is correct, he is probably the same as the tribune of B. C. 492, so that Sp. Icilius would have been tribune for the first time in 492, the second time in 481, and the third time in 471. In the year after his first tribunat
Maceri'nus 1. T. Geganius Macerinus, consul B. C. 492, with P. Minucius Augurinus, during which year there was a great famine at Rome, in consequence of the lands being uncultivated in the preceding year, when the plebs had retired to the Sacred Mountain. (Liv. 2.34; Dionys. A. R. 7.1; Oros. 2.5.)
Mardo'nius (*Mardo/nios), a Persian, son of Gobryas, who was one of the seven conspirators against Smerdis the Magian, in B. C. 521. (See Hdt. 3.70, &c.) In the spring of B. C. 492, the second year from the close of the Ionian war, Mardonius, who had recently married Artazostra, the daughter of Dareius IIystaspis, was sent by the king, with a large armament, as successor of Artaphernes, to complete the settlement of Ionia, and to punish Eretria and Athens for the aid they had given to the rebels. (Comp. Hdt. 5.99, &c.) But while this was the nominal object of the expedition, it was intended also for the conquest of as many Grecian states as possible. Throughout the Ionian cities Mardonius deposed the tyrants whom Artaphernes had placed in power, and established democracy, -- a step remarkably opposed to the ordinary rules of Persian policy. He then crossed the Hellespont, and, while his fleet sailed to Thasos and subdued it, he marched with his land forces through Thrace and Macedoni
Sici'nius 1. L. Sicinius Bellutus, the leader of the plebeians in their secession to the Sacred Mount in B. C. 494, which led to the institution of the office of tribune of the plebs. Sicinius was chosen one of the first tribunes, the original number of whom is variously stated in the ancient authorities (Liv. 2.32. 33, 3.54; Dionys. A. R. 6.45, 70, &c., 89; Ascon. in Cornel. p. 76, ed. Orelli; Niebuhr, Hist. of Rome, vol. i. p. 617.) Dionysius further relates (7.14) that Sicinius was plebeian aedile in B. C. 492, when he joined the tribune Sp. Icilius in attacking the senate on account of the dearness of provisions, and that he was elected tribune a second time in B. C. 491, on account of his vehement hostility to the patricians. The proceedings of his second tribunate are related at length by Dionysius (7.33-39).
bject to the Persians. An agreement also was made with the Carthaginians, that they should attack the Greek cities in Sicily and Italy, while Xerxes invaded the mother country. Two great works were at the same time undertaken, which might bear witness to the grandeur and power of the Persian monarch. He ordered that a bridge of boats should be thrown across the Hellespont, and that a canal should be cut through the isthmus of Mount Athos, on which the fleet of Mardonius had been wrecked in B. C. 492. The bridge across the Hellespont stretched from the neighbourhood or Abydos on the Asiatic side to the coast between Sestos and Madytus on the European, were the strait is about an English mile in breadth. The work was entrusted to Phoenicians and Egyptians; but after it had been completed, it was destroyed by a violent storm. Xerxes was so enraged that he caused the heads of the chief engineers to be cut off, and commanded that the strait itself should be scourged, and a set of fetters c