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A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith) 18 18 Browse Search
Samuel Ball Platner, Thomas Ashby, A Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome 3 3 Browse Search
Strabo, Geography (ed. H.C. Hamilton, Esq., W. Falconer, M.A.) 1 1 Browse Search
Titus Livius (Livy), Ab Urbe Condita, books 3-4 (ed. Benjamin Oliver Foster, Ph.D.) 1 1 Browse Search
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Strabo, Geography (ed. H.C. Hamilton, Esq., W. Falconer, M.A.), BOOK VI., CHAPTER IV. (search)
when they expelled him, and established a mixed form of government, being a modification both of the monarchical and aristocratical systems; they admitted both the SabinesIn the year 747 B. C. and LatinsIn the year 594 B. C. into their alliance, but as neither they nor the other neighbouring states continued to act with good faith towards them at all times, they were under the necessity of aggrandizing themselves by the dismemberment of their neighbours.The Latins were first subjected in 499 B. C., but not totally subjugated; the Sabines were almost annihilated in the war which happened about 450 B. C. Having thus, by degrees, arrived at a state of considerable importance, it chanced that they lost their city suddenly, contrary to the expectation of all men, and again recovered the same contrary to all expectation.See Poly b. Hist. book i. chap. vi. § 1, edit. Schweigh, tom. i. p. 12. This took place, according to Polybius, in the nineteenth year after the naval engagement o
Titus Livius (Livy), The History of Rome, Book 4 (ed. Benjamin Oliver Foster, Ph.D.), chapter 27 (search)
h great dispatch. Gnaeus Julius the consul was left behind to protect the city; and Lucius Julius, the master of the horse, to meet the sudden demands which arise in war, that the troops might not be hampered in camp by the want of anything that they might need. The dictator, repeating the words after Aulus Cornelius the pontifex maximus, vowedB.C. 431 to celebrate great gamesNot to be confounded with the annual Ludi Magni established by A. Postumius after his victory at Lake Regillus, 499 B.C. The present reference is to votive games to be given, in the event of victory, as payment in full for the assistance of the gods. if he succeeded in quelling the outbreak, and, dividing his army with the consul Quinctius, set out from Rome and came to the enemy. Seeing that the opposing forces occupied two camps with a little space between, the Roman generals followed their example and encamped about a mile from the enemy, the dictator nearer to Tusculum and the consul to Lanuvium.
Samuel Ball Platner, Thomas Ashby, A Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome, CASTOR, AEDES, TEMPLUM (search)
CASTOR, AEDES, TEMPLUM * the temple of Castor and Pollux at the south- east corner of the forum area, close to the fons Iuturnae (Cic. de nat. deor. iii. 13; Plut. Coriol. 3; Dionys. vi. 13; Mart. i. 70. 3; FUR fr. 20, cf. NS 1882, 233). According to tradition, it was vowed in 499 B.C. by the dictator Postumius, when the Dioscuri appeared on this spot after the battle of Lake Regillus, and dedicated in 484 by the son of the dictator who was appointed duumvir for this purpose (Liv. ii. 20. 12, 42. 5; Dionys. loc. cit.). The day of dedication is given in the calendar as 27th January (Fast. Praen. CIL i 2. p. 308; Fast. Verol. ap. NS 1923, 196; Ov. Fast. i. 705-706), but by Livy (ii. 42. 5) as 15th July. The later may be merely an error, or the date of the first temple only (see WR 216-217, and literature there cited). Its official name was aedes Castoris (Suet. Caes. 10 : ut enim geminis fratribus aedes in foro constituta tantum Castoris vocaretur; Cass. Dio xxxvii. 8; a
Samuel Ball Platner, Thomas Ashby, A Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome, FORUM (ROMANUM S. MAGNUM) (search)
ass, was always maintained in the shrine of Iuturna, the regia and the temple of Vesta, in the comitium and rostra until the time of Julius Caesar, and in the atrium Vestae (which, strictly speaking, lies, like the temple, outside the forum) until that of Nero. On the other hand, the line of direction of the temples of Saturn and of Castor (the lacus Iuturnae, at first orientated with the precinct of Vesta, was afterwards made to conform with this temple), which date from the beginning of the fifth century B.C., already began at that period to exert an influence the other way, which finally triumphed in the main. The Tabernae Veteres, and the various basilicas which succeeded them, doubtless conformed to it; and so did the Tabernae Novae, and consequently the basilica Aemilia. Julius Caesar's transference of the rostra and reconstruction of the curia dealt (with the exceptions noted above) the final blow to the old orientation (Mem. L. 5. xvii. 506, 511). The first indubitable signs
Samuel Ball Platner, Thomas Ashby, A Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome, Chronological Index to Dateable Monuments (search)
Chronological Index to Dateable Monuments B.C. 509 Temple of Juppiter Capitolinus dedicated, 297. of Dea Carna vowed (and built some years later), 148. 501-493of Saturn, 463. 499of Castor vowed, 102. 496of Cares, Liber and Libera vowed, 109. Lacus Juturnae, 311. 495Temple of Mercur dedicated, 339. 493of Ceres, Liber and Libera dedicated, 109 484of Castor dedicated, 102 466Aedes of Semo Sancus dedicated, 469. 456Part of Aventine given to Plebs, 67. 445Lacus Curtius (?), 310. 439Conlumna Minucia, 133. 435Villa Publica built, 581. 433Temple of Apollo vowed, 5. 430of Apollo dedicated, 15. 395of Mater Matuta restored, 330. 392of Juno Regina on Aventine dedicated, 290. 390The Gallic fire: debris in Comitium, 135, 451; Regia burnt, 441; Templ of Vesta burnt, 557. Ara Aii Locutii dedicated by Senate, 3. 389(after). Via Latina, 564. 388Area Capitolina enlarged, 48. Temple of Mars on Via Appia, 328. 384Patri
to apply himself to tragedy. At daybreak he made the attempt, and succeeded very easily." Such a dream as this could hardly have resulted from anything but the impression produced by tragic exhibitions upon a warm imagination. At the age of 25 (B. C. 499), he made his first appearance as a competitor for the prize of tragedy, against Choerilus and Pratinas, without however being successful. Sixteen years afterward (B. C. 484), Aeschylus gained his first victory. The titles of the pieces which h This tradition, however, is not supported by strong independent testimony, and accordingly its truth has been much questionned. Suidas indeed states that Aeschylus had visited Sicily even before this, when he was only twenty-five years of age (B. C. 499), immediately after his first contest with Pratinas, on which occasion the crowd of spectators was so great as to cause the fall of the wooden planks (i)/kria) or temporary scaffolding, on which they were accommodated with seats. In B. C. 467
Anaxa'goras (*)Anacago/ras), a Greek philosopher, was born at Clazomenae in Ionia about the year B. C. 499. His father, Hegesibulus, left him in the possession of considerable property, but as he intended to devote his life to higher ends, he gave it up to his relatives as something which ought not to engage his attention. He is said to have gone to Athens at the age of twenty, during the contest of the Greeks with Persia, and to have lived and taught in that city for a period of thirty years. He became here the intimate friend and teacher of the most eminent men of the time, such as Euripides and Pericles; but while he thus gained the friendship and admiration of the most enlightened Athenians, the majority, uneasy at being disturbed in their hereditary superstitions, soon found reasons for complaint. The principal cause of hostility towards him must, however, be looked for in the following circumstance. As he was a friend of Pericles, the party which was dissatisfied with his admin
, shewed the Athenians that they had to hope nothing from Persia. In B. C. 501, Artaphernes was induced by the brilliant hopes which Aristagoras of Miletus held out to him, to place, with the king's consent, 200 ships and a Persian force at the command of Aristagoras, for the purpose of restoring the Naxian exiles to their country. But the undertaking failed, and Aristagoras, unable to realise his promises, was driven by fear to cause the insurrection of the Ionians against Persia. When in B. C. 499 Aristagoras and his Athenian allies marched against Sardis, Artaphernes, not expecting such an attack, withdrew to the citadel, and the town of Sardis fell into the hands of the Greeks and was burnt. But the Greeks returned, fearing lest they should be overwhelmed by a Persian army, which might come to the relief of Artaphernes. In the second year of the Ionian war, B. C. 497, Artaphernes and Otanes began to attack vigorously the towns of Ionia and Aeolis. Cumae and Clazomenae fell into th
the reign of Hipparchus, when Athens was becoming the centre of Greek poetry by the residence there of Simonides, Anacreon, Lasus, and others. This was twelve years after the first appearance of Thespis in the tragic contests; and it is therefore not improbable that Choerilus had Thespis for an antagonist. It was also twelve years before the first victory of Phrynichus. (B. C. 511.) After another twelve years, Choerilus came into competition with Aeschylus, when the latter first exhibited (B. C. 499); and, since we know that Aeschylus did not carry off a prize till sixteen years afterwards, the prize of this contest must have been given either to Chocrilus or to Pratinas. (Suid. s.vv,. *Ai)sxu/los, *Prati/nas.) Choerilus was still held in high estimation in the year 483 B. C. after he had exhibited tragedies for forty years. (Cyrill. Julian. i. p. 13,b.; Euseb. Chron. sub. Ol. 74. 2; Syncell. p . 254, b.) In the statement in the anonymous life of Souhocles, that Sophocles contended wi
Cicuri'nus 1. P. Veturius Geminus Cicurinus, consul B. C. 499 with T. Aebutius Elva. In this year siege was laid to Fidenae, Crustumeria was taken, and Praeneste revolted from the Latins to the Romans. In Livy (2.19) his praenomen is Caius, but Dionysius (5.58) has Publius; and the latter name is preferable, as it seems likely enough that the P. Veturius, who was one of the first two quaestors, was the same as the consul. (Plut. Poplic. 12.)
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