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A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith) 18 18 Browse Search
Samuel Ball Platner, Thomas Ashby, A Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome 3 3 Browse Search
Strabo, Geography (ed. H.C. Hamilton, Esq., W. Falconer, M.A.) 1 1 Browse Search
Titus Livius (Livy), Ab Urbe Condita, books 3-4 (ed. Benjamin Oliver Foster, Ph.D.) 1 1 Browse Search
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Browsing named entities in A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith). You can also browse the collection for 499 BC or search for 499 BC in all documents.

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to apply himself to tragedy. At daybreak he made the attempt, and succeeded very easily." Such a dream as this could hardly have resulted from anything but the impression produced by tragic exhibitions upon a warm imagination. At the age of 25 (B. C. 499), he made his first appearance as a competitor for the prize of tragedy, against Choerilus and Pratinas, without however being successful. Sixteen years afterward (B. C. 484), Aeschylus gained his first victory. The titles of the pieces which h This tradition, however, is not supported by strong independent testimony, and accordingly its truth has been much questionned. Suidas indeed states that Aeschylus had visited Sicily even before this, when he was only twenty-five years of age (B. C. 499), immediately after his first contest with Pratinas, on which occasion the crowd of spectators was so great as to cause the fall of the wooden planks (i)/kria) or temporary scaffolding, on which they were accommodated with seats. In B. C. 467
Anaxa'goras (*)Anacago/ras), a Greek philosopher, was born at Clazomenae in Ionia about the year B. C. 499. His father, Hegesibulus, left him in the possession of considerable property, but as he intended to devote his life to higher ends, he gave it up to his relatives as something which ought not to engage his attention. He is said to have gone to Athens at the age of twenty, during the contest of the Greeks with Persia, and to have lived and taught in that city for a period of thirty years. He became here the intimate friend and teacher of the most eminent men of the time, such as Euripides and Pericles; but while he thus gained the friendship and admiration of the most enlightened Athenians, the majority, uneasy at being disturbed in their hereditary superstitions, soon found reasons for complaint. The principal cause of hostility towards him must, however, be looked for in the following circumstance. As he was a friend of Pericles, the party which was dissatisfied with his admin
, shewed the Athenians that they had to hope nothing from Persia. In B. C. 501, Artaphernes was induced by the brilliant hopes which Aristagoras of Miletus held out to him, to place, with the king's consent, 200 ships and a Persian force at the command of Aristagoras, for the purpose of restoring the Naxian exiles to their country. But the undertaking failed, and Aristagoras, unable to realise his promises, was driven by fear to cause the insurrection of the Ionians against Persia. When in B. C. 499 Aristagoras and his Athenian allies marched against Sardis, Artaphernes, not expecting such an attack, withdrew to the citadel, and the town of Sardis fell into the hands of the Greeks and was burnt. But the Greeks returned, fearing lest they should be overwhelmed by a Persian army, which might come to the relief of Artaphernes. In the second year of the Ionian war, B. C. 497, Artaphernes and Otanes began to attack vigorously the towns of Ionia and Aeolis. Cumae and Clazomenae fell into th
the reign of Hipparchus, when Athens was becoming the centre of Greek poetry by the residence there of Simonides, Anacreon, Lasus, and others. This was twelve years after the first appearance of Thespis in the tragic contests; and it is therefore not improbable that Choerilus had Thespis for an antagonist. It was also twelve years before the first victory of Phrynichus. (B. C. 511.) After another twelve years, Choerilus came into competition with Aeschylus, when the latter first exhibited (B. C. 499); and, since we know that Aeschylus did not carry off a prize till sixteen years afterwards, the prize of this contest must have been given either to Chocrilus or to Pratinas. (Suid. s.vv,. *Ai)sxu/los, *Prati/nas.) Choerilus was still held in high estimation in the year 483 B. C. after he had exhibited tragedies for forty years. (Cyrill. Julian. i. p. 13,b.; Euseb. Chron. sub. Ol. 74. 2; Syncell. p . 254, b.) In the statement in the anonymous life of Souhocles, that Sophocles contended wi
Cicuri'nus 1. P. Veturius Geminus Cicurinus, consul B. C. 499 with T. Aebutius Elva. In this year siege was laid to Fidenae, Crustumeria was taken, and Praeneste revolted from the Latins to the Romans. In Livy (2.19) his praenomen is Caius, but Dionysius (5.58) has Publius; and the latter name is preferable, as it seems likely enough that the P. Veturius, who was one of the first two quaestors, was the same as the consul. (Plut. Poplic. 12.)
Dau'rises (*Dauri/shs), the son-in-law of Dareius Hystaspis, was one of the Persian commanders who were employed in suppressing the Ionian revolt. (B. C. 499.) After the defeat of the Ionian army at Ephesus, Daurises marched against the cities on the Hellespont, and took Dardanus, Abydus, Percote, Lampsacus, and Paesus, each in one day. He then marched against the Carians, who had just joined in the Ionian revolt, and defeated them in two battles; but shortly afterwards Daurises fell into an ambush, and was killed, with a great number of the Persians. (Hdt. 5.116-121.) [P.
Elva the name of a patrician family of the Aebutia gens. 1 T. AEBUTIUS ELVA, T. F., consul with P. Vetiurius Geminus Cicurinus in B. C. 499, in which year Fidenae was besieged and Crustumeria taken. In the following year, according to the date of most annalists, Elva was magister equitum to the dictator A. Postumius Albinus in the great battle fought at the Lake Regillus, where he commanded the left wing. The lays of that battle sung of his combat with Octavius Mamilius, by whom his arm was pierced through. (Liv. 2.19; Dionys. A. R. 5.58, 6.2, 4, 5, 11.)
Gorgus 2. King of Salamis, in Cyprus, was son of Chersis, and great-grandson of Evelthon, the contemporary of Arcesilaus III. of Cyrene. His brother Onesilus, having long urged him in vain to revolt from the Persian king, at length drove him from the city, and, usurping the throne, set up the standard of rebellion with the Ionians in B. C. 499. Gorgus was restored to his kingdom in the next year on the reduction of the Cyprians and the death of Onesilus in battle. He joined Xerxes in his invasion of Greece, and his brother Philaon was taken prisoner by the Greeks in the first of the three battles at Artemisium in B. C. 480. (Hdt. 5.104, 115, 7.98, 8.11; Larcher ad Herod. 5.104; Clinton, F. H. sub annis 499, 498, vol. ii. App. 5.)
gns into execution. Megabazus, a Persian officer, whom Dareius had left in Europe to complete the conquest of Thrace, advised the king to recal his promise, and not to allow an able and crafty man, like Histiaeus, to raise a formidable power within the empire. Histiaeus followed Dareius reluctantly to Susa, where he was detained for thirteen years, till the outbreak of the Ionian revolt, kindly treated, but prohibited from returning. On the news of the burning of Sardis by the Athenians (B. C. 499) [ARISTAGORAS], whom Aristagoras had induced to send help to their kinsmen of Ionia, Dareius charged Histiaeus with being a party to the revolt. His suspicions were correct: Histiaeus had encouraged Aristagoras in his design, employing a singular expedient to escape detection. He had shaved the head of one of his slaves, branded his message on the skin, and sent him to Aristagoras, after the hair had grown, with the direction to shave it off again. A revolution in Ionia might lead, he hope
Hy'meas (*(Ume/hs), a son-in-law of Dareius Hystaspis, acted as a general of his against the revolted Ionians, and was one of those who defeated the rebels near Ephesus in B. C. 499. In the following year Hymeas took the town of Cius on the Propontis, and reduced the Aeolians and Gergithians, in the midst of which successes he was carried off by illness. (Hdt. 5.102, 111, 116.) [E.
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