We learn from the Iliad that at the time of the siege of Troy (1184 B. C.) iron was used in making axes, shipwrights' tools, axles for chariots, plowpoints, sheep-hooks, and some other agricultural implements. As the smith plunges the loud-hissing axe into cold water to temper it, for hence is the strength of iron, etc., shows clearly that the writer or compiler of the Odyssey, whom we are content to call Homer, lived in a time when iron and steel were forged and tempered.
About 500 B. C., and thereafter, steel was imported into Greece from the Chalybes, a people inhabiting the shore on the southeast of the Black Sea, and the use of bronze for weapons terminated soon after.
Marathon was fought 460 B. C. The steel was called Chalybian, and we retain the name in connection with waters, as Chalybeate springs.
In Asia the Chalybes were noted for their works in iron, from which they obtained great profits. — Xenophon, Anab.
Aristotle mentions that their arenaceous ores w
form of taxation upon property; the eminent domain of water being vested in the sovereign.
The Egyptians, says Eustathius, recorded their marches in maps.
has a representation of the popular idea of the earth in the time of Homer, 900 B. C. It consisted of a strip of land around the Pontus Pelagus, and even the boundaries were not known toward the northwest.
Cimmerian darkness brooded upon the deep which surrounded the land.
Next is the world as known to Hecateus about 500 B. C., say about the time of Daniel.
The borders of the Mediterranean are defined; the Iberi and Celtae are known; the pillars of Hercules on the west and the Caspian on the cast mark the longitudinal extent; back of Asia Minor is a greater Asia, which extends westward to the Nile.
In the world of Herodotus, the Caspian was changed from an indentation in the land to a lake.
Asia extends to the Atlantic; Libya is a subdivision.
Aristogoras, the tyrant of Miletus, showed to King Cleomenes
S. White of Philadelphia, for packing and condensing gold in filling teeth, strikes direct and very rapid blows, perfectly adjustable as to force, and either continuous or dependent upon touch; the blow being given when the point of the plugger is pressed upon the filling, and ceasing when the pressure is removed.
Among the ancients some success was obtained in the art of dentistry.
Casselius was a dentist in the reign of the Roman triumvirs, and gold was used for the filling.
Nearly 500 B. C. gold was thus used, and gold wire was employed to hold artificial teeth in position.
A fragment of the tenth of the Roman tables, 450 B. C., has reference to preventing the burial of any gold with the dead except that bound around the teeth.
Herodotus declares that the Egyptians had a knowledge of the diseases of teeth and their treatment 2000 B. C. In Martial, Casselius is mentioned as either filling or extracting teeth.
Green's electro-magnetic mallet.
nute, and the cost of the device is about $3,500.
The doctrine of the different sounds of vibrating strings of different lengths, and the communication of sounds to the ear by the vibration of the atmosphere, is ascribed to Pythagoras, about 500 B. C.; mentioned by Aristotle, 300 B. C.; explained by Galileo, A. D. 1600; investigated by Newton, 1700.
Discoursed with Mr. Hooke about the nature of sounds, and he did make me understand the nature of musical sounds made by strings, mighty pd Hesiod, 850 B. C., of bright iron and black iron, the former probably meaning steel: it may have been a different quality, and have taken a finer polish, as steel does.
Steel was imported from the country of the Chalybes in to Greece about 500 B. C., and the name chalybs signified steel.
The description of steel-making by Aristotle shows that the process was repetitive, and that dross was eliminated Heating several times in contact with charcoal was held to purify it. It was not understoo
an alligator and receiving its name from thence.
It is laid on the ground before the performer.
The fang-hiang, or wood-harmonicon of the Chinese, had 16 slabs of an oblong shape suspended in a wooden frame.
The slabs were arranged in two tiers one above another, and were of equal length and width, but different thickness.
The king, or stone-harmonicon, of the Chinese is composed of slabs of sonorous stone, and is said to have greatly charmed Kung-fu-tze, 500 B. C. The yu is the favorite stone, and is probably an agate.
The pien-king is a modern from, and is tuned in intervals called lu, twelve in the compass of an octave.
The stones are suspended by strings and tuned by chipping or grinding to a size or thickness.
Such were used among the Peruvians before the conquest.
Also used in Central Africa and Angola.
（Nautical.) Blocks in the scores of the stern-post to keep the rudder from lifting off its bearings.