he arrow and its bow, which is, critically considered, a really beautiful invention.
The first weapons of mankind were the hands, nails, and teeth; also stones and branches of trees, the fragments of the woods; then flame and fire were used, as soon as they were known; and lastly was discovered the strength of iron and brass.
But the use of brass was known earlier than that of iron, inasmuch as its substance is more easy to work, and its abundance greater. —Lucretius; d. 51 B. C. aet. 44.
History commences after the invention of the bow and arrow, and the Australian race seems to have diverged from the parent stock before its introduction, as they, and they only, do not possess it. They have a curious analogue, however, in their flexible spears, which are bent, when adjusted for throwing, so that their reaction in straightening may increase the force of the projection.
The peculiar course of their flight when they did not straighten perfectly may have suggested
t almost to the Bay of Graine.
Herodotus and Pliny mention the canals of Asia Minor.
The first constructed in Europe was probably that dug by Xerxes across the low Isthmus of Athos.
The Greeks attempted to cut one across the Isthmus of Corinth.
Among the early European canals may be mentioned the canal through the Pontine Marshes, made 162 B. C.; and the Fossa Phillistina and Carbonania, dug by the Etruscans, and which derived their water from the Padus, now the Po.
Caius Marius, 51 B. C., constructed the Fossa Marina between Arles and Fos, a haven on the Mediterranean.
Lucius Verus undertook to unite the Saone and Moselle, and also to unite the Mediterranean and the German Ocean by means of the Rhone, Saone, Moselle, and Rhine.
His death prevented the execution of the project.
The great object of the Romans was to increase the facility of transportation, the great economical agent of civilization.
Their land and water ways were the arteries and veins of commerce, an
red about 300 years since, a short distance from Rome, in the tomb of Alexander Severus, who was killed by Maximinus, A. D. 235.
The body of the vase consists of dark blue glass, on the surface of which are delineated in relief elaborately wrought figures of opaque white enamel.
So admirably is it made that it was long supposed to be a genuine sardonyx.
Fictitious gems in glass were known in Rome, as were also mosaic glass, glass plates for paving, walllining, windows.
Lucretius (95-51 B. C.) accounted as follows for the fact that sound would pass through some objects while images would not:—
The voice can pass unbroken through winding pores of bodies, though images refuse to pass through them; for the letter are broken to pieces unless they go through straight passages, such as those of glass, through which every image flies.
(Book IV. 613– 619.)
Opalescent glass is referred to by the Emperor Hadrian in a letter to the consul Servianus, thanking him for a present of thr