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A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith) 10 10 Browse Search
Herodotus, The Histories (ed. A. D. Godley) 1 1 Browse Search
Plato, Laws 1 1 Browse Search
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Herodotus, The Histories (ed. A. D. Godley), Book 3, chapter 88 (search)
So Darius son of Hystaspes was made king,521 B.C. and the whole of Asia, which Cyrus first and Cambyses after him had conquered, was subject to him, except the Arabians; these did not yield as of slaves to the Persians, but were united to them by friendship, having given Cambyses passage into Egypt, which the Persians could not enter without the consent of the Arabians. Darius took wives from the noblest houses of Persia, marrying Cyrus' daughters Atossa and Artystone; Atossa had been a wife of her brother Cambyses and afterwards of the Magus; Artystone was a virgin. He also married a daughter of Cyrus' son Smerdis, whose name was Parmys, and the daughter of Otanes who had discovered the truth about the Magus; and everything was full of his power. First he made and set up a carved stone, upon which was cut the figure of a horseman, with this inscription: “Darius son of Hystaspes, aided by the excellence of his horse” (here followed the horse's name) “and of Oebares his groom, got po<
Plato, Laws, Book 3, section 695b (search)
such as they were likely to become when reared with a rearing that “spared the rod.” So when, at the death of Cyrus, his sons took over the kingdom, over-pampered and undisciplined as they were, first, the one killed the other,i.e., Cambyses killed Smerdis. through annoyance at his being put on an equality with himself, and presently, being mad with drink and debauchery, he lost his own throne at the hands of the Medes, under the man then called the Eunuch,i.e., the Magian, Gomates, who personated Smerdis and claimed the kingdom. After seven months' reign this usurper was slain by seven Persian nobles, of whom Darius was one (521 B.C.). who despised the stupidity of Cambyses.CliniasThat, certainly, is the story, and probably it is near
Anaphas (*)Anafa=s), was said to have been one of the seven who slew the Magi in B. C. 521, and to have been lineally descended from Atossa, the sister of Cambyses, who was the father of the great Cyrus. The Cappadocian kings traced their origin to Anaphas, who received the government of Cappadocia, free from taxes. Anaphas was succeeded by his son of the same name, and the latter by Datames. (Diod. xxxi. Ecl. 3
armed by a dream which seemed to portend his brother's greatness, sent a confidential minister named Prexaspes to Susa with orders to put him to death. Afterwards, a Magian, who bore the same name as the deceased prince and greatly resembled him in appearance, took advantage of these circumstances to personate him and set up a claim to the throne [SMERDIS], and Cambyses, while marching through Syria against this pretender, died at a place named Ecbatana of an accidental wound in the thigh, B. C. 521. According to Ctesias, the name of the king's murdered brother was Tanyoxarces, and a Magian named Sphendadates accused him to the king of an intention to revolt. After his death by poison, Cambyses, to conceal it from his mother Amytis, made Sphendadates personate him. The fraud succeeded at first, from the wonderful likeness between the Magian and the murdered prince; at length, however, Amytis discovered it, and died of poison, which she had voluntarily taken, imprecating curses on Camb
per was formed, and he was associated with the six other conspirators, who, by his advice, resolved to act without delay. [SMERDIS.] The discussions among the Persian chiefs, which ensued upon the death of the Magian, ended in favour of the monarchical form of government, which was advocated by Dareius, and Dareius himself was chosen to the kingdom by a sign, which had been agreed on by the conspirators, and which Dareius, with the aid of his groom Oebares, contrived to obtain for himself, B. C. 521. This account, instead of being a fiction, is quite in accordance with the spirit of the Persian religion. (Heeren's Asiatic Researches, ii. p. 350; comp. Tac. Germ. 10.) The usurpation of Smerdis seems to have been an attempt on the part of the Medes to regain their supremacy. The conspirators against him were noble Persians, and in all probability the chiefs of Persian tribes. Their discussion about the form of government to be adopted is evidently related by Herodotus according to Gre
Phot. Bibl. 239, p. 319, 29, ed. Bekker; Solin. 40.16.) He is ranked among the writers of the Ionic dialect. (Gram. Leid. ad calcem Gregor. Cor. p. 629; comp. Tzetz. Proleg. ad Lycoph. 690.) The exact date of Hipponax is not agreed upon, but it can be fixed within certain limits. The Parian marble (Ep. 43) makes him contemporary with the taking of Sardis by Cyrus (B. C. 546) : Pliny (36.5. s. 4.2) places him at the 60th Olympiad, B. C. 540: Proclus (l.c.) says that he lived under Dareius (B. C. 521-485) : Eusebius (Chron. Ol. 23), following an error already pointed out by Plutarch (de Mus. 6, vol. ii. p. 1133c. d.), made him a contemporary of Terpander; and Diphilus, the comic poet, was guilty of (or rather he assumed as a poetic licence) the same anachronism in representing both Archilochus and Hipponax as the lovers of Sappho. (Athen. 13.599d.) Hipponax, then, lived in the latter half of the sixth century B. C., about half a century after Solon, and a century and a half later than
Hydarnes (*(Uda/rnhs), one of the seven Persian noblemen who conspired against the Magi in B. C. 521. He commanded for Xerxes on the seacoast of Asia Minor, and entertained Sperthias and Bulis when they were on their way to Susa to deliver themselves up to the king as a compensation for the Persian ambassadors slain at Sparta. (Hdt. 3.70, 6.48, 133, 7.133-135; Strab. xi. p.531.) Herodotus mentions another Hydarnes (7.83, 211) as the commander of the select band of Persians called the Immortals in Xerxes' invasion of Greece. It is doubtful whether the Hydarnes mentioned in Hdt. 7.66 is to be identified with either of the above. [E.
Mardo'nius (*Mardo/nios), a Persian, son of Gobryas, who was one of the seven conspirators against Smerdis the Magian, in B. C. 521. (See Hdt. 3.70, &c.) In the spring of B. C. 492, the second year from the close of the Ionian war, Mardonius, who had recently married Artazostra, the daughter of Dareius IIystaspis, was sent by the king, with a large armament, as successor of Artaphernes, to complete the settlement of Ionia, and to punish Eretria and Athens for the aid they had given to the rebels. (Comp. Hdt. 5.99, &c.) But while this was the nominal object of the expedition, it was intended also for the conquest of as many Grecian states as possible. Throughout the Ionian cities Mardonius deposed the tyrants whom Artaphernes had placed in power, and established democracy, -- a step remarkably opposed to the ordinary rules of Persian policy. He then crossed the Hellespont, and, while his fleet sailed to Thasos and subdued it, he marched with his land forces through Thrace and Macedoni
Megaby'zus 1. One of the seven Persian nobles who formed the conspiracy against the Magian Smerdis, B. C. 521. In the discussion put into the mouths of the conspirators by Herodotus, after the death of the Magian, Megabazus recommends an oligarchical form of government. (Hdt. 3.70, 81.) Dareius, who held him in the highest esteem, left him behind with an army in Europe, when he himself recrossed the Hellespont, on his return from Seytina, B. C. 506. (Id. 4.143, 144.) Megabazus subdued Perinthus and the other cities on the Hellespont and along the coast of Thrace, which had not yet submitted to the Persian rule, and removed the Paeonians, who dwelt about the Strymon, into Phrygia. (Id. 5.1-16, comp. 98.) He also sent to Amyntas, the king of Macedonia, and demanded earth and water, in token of his submission to Dareius. [For what followed see ALEXANDER I. Vol. I. p. 118.] On his return to Sardis he advised Dareius to recall Histiaeus from Myreinus. [HISTIAEUS.] Herodotus mentions a cel
Mitroba'tes (*Mitroba/ths), a Persian, governor of Dascyleium, is said by Herodotus to have taunted Oroetes, satrap of Sardis, with his allowing Samos to continue free from the Persian yoke. During the disturbed period which followed the death of Cambyses and the usurpation of the Magi (B. C. 521), Oroetes put Mitrobates and his son Cranaspes to death. (Hdt. 3.120, 126, 127.) [E.
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