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A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith) 10 10 Browse Search
Herodotus, The Histories (ed. A. D. Godley) 1 1 Browse Search
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Browsing named entities in A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith). You can also browse the collection for 521 BC or search for 521 BC in all documents.

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Anaphas (*)Anafa=s), was said to have been one of the seven who slew the Magi in B. C. 521, and to have been lineally descended from Atossa, the sister of Cambyses, who was the father of the great Cyrus. The Cappadocian kings traced their origin to Anaphas, who received the government of Cappadocia, free from taxes. Anaphas was succeeded by his son of the same name, and the latter by Datames. (Diod. xxxi. Ecl. 3
armed by a dream which seemed to portend his brother's greatness, sent a confidential minister named Prexaspes to Susa with orders to put him to death. Afterwards, a Magian, who bore the same name as the deceased prince and greatly resembled him in appearance, took advantage of these circumstances to personate him and set up a claim to the throne [SMERDIS], and Cambyses, while marching through Syria against this pretender, died at a place named Ecbatana of an accidental wound in the thigh, B. C. 521. According to Ctesias, the name of the king's murdered brother was Tanyoxarces, and a Magian named Sphendadates accused him to the king of an intention to revolt. After his death by poison, Cambyses, to conceal it from his mother Amytis, made Sphendadates personate him. The fraud succeeded at first, from the wonderful likeness between the Magian and the murdered prince; at length, however, Amytis discovered it, and died of poison, which she had voluntarily taken, imprecating curses on Camb
per was formed, and he was associated with the six other conspirators, who, by his advice, resolved to act without delay. [SMERDIS.] The discussions among the Persian chiefs, which ensued upon the death of the Magian, ended in favour of the monarchical form of government, which was advocated by Dareius, and Dareius himself was chosen to the kingdom by a sign, which had been agreed on by the conspirators, and which Dareius, with the aid of his groom Oebares, contrived to obtain for himself, B. C. 521. This account, instead of being a fiction, is quite in accordance with the spirit of the Persian religion. (Heeren's Asiatic Researches, ii. p. 350; comp. Tac. Germ. 10.) The usurpation of Smerdis seems to have been an attempt on the part of the Medes to regain their supremacy. The conspirators against him were noble Persians, and in all probability the chiefs of Persian tribes. Their discussion about the form of government to be adopted is evidently related by Herodotus according to Gre
Phot. Bibl. 239, p. 319, 29, ed. Bekker; Solin. 40.16.) He is ranked among the writers of the Ionic dialect. (Gram. Leid. ad calcem Gregor. Cor. p. 629; comp. Tzetz. Proleg. ad Lycoph. 690.) The exact date of Hipponax is not agreed upon, but it can be fixed within certain limits. The Parian marble (Ep. 43) makes him contemporary with the taking of Sardis by Cyrus (B. C. 546) : Pliny (36.5. s. 4.2) places him at the 60th Olympiad, B. C. 540: Proclus (l.c.) says that he lived under Dareius (B. C. 521-485) : Eusebius (Chron. Ol. 23), following an error already pointed out by Plutarch (de Mus. 6, vol. ii. p. 1133c. d.), made him a contemporary of Terpander; and Diphilus, the comic poet, was guilty of (or rather he assumed as a poetic licence) the same anachronism in representing both Archilochus and Hipponax as the lovers of Sappho. (Athen. 13.599d.) Hipponax, then, lived in the latter half of the sixth century B. C., about half a century after Solon, and a century and a half later than
Hydarnes (*(Uda/rnhs), one of the seven Persian noblemen who conspired against the Magi in B. C. 521. He commanded for Xerxes on the seacoast of Asia Minor, and entertained Sperthias and Bulis when they were on their way to Susa to deliver themselves up to the king as a compensation for the Persian ambassadors slain at Sparta. (Hdt. 3.70, 6.48, 133, 7.133-135; Strab. xi. p.531.) Herodotus mentions another Hydarnes (7.83, 211) as the commander of the select band of Persians called the Immortals in Xerxes' invasion of Greece. It is doubtful whether the Hydarnes mentioned in Hdt. 7.66 is to be identified with either of the above. [E.
Mardo'nius (*Mardo/nios), a Persian, son of Gobryas, who was one of the seven conspirators against Smerdis the Magian, in B. C. 521. (See Hdt. 3.70, &c.) In the spring of B. C. 492, the second year from the close of the Ionian war, Mardonius, who had recently married Artazostra, the daughter of Dareius IIystaspis, was sent by the king, with a large armament, as successor of Artaphernes, to complete the settlement of Ionia, and to punish Eretria and Athens for the aid they had given to the rebels. (Comp. Hdt. 5.99, &c.) But while this was the nominal object of the expedition, it was intended also for the conquest of as many Grecian states as possible. Throughout the Ionian cities Mardonius deposed the tyrants whom Artaphernes had placed in power, and established democracy, -- a step remarkably opposed to the ordinary rules of Persian policy. He then crossed the Hellespont, and, while his fleet sailed to Thasos and subdued it, he marched with his land forces through Thrace and Macedoni
Megaby'zus 1. One of the seven Persian nobles who formed the conspiracy against the Magian Smerdis, B. C. 521. In the discussion put into the mouths of the conspirators by Herodotus, after the death of the Magian, Megabazus recommends an oligarchical form of government. (Hdt. 3.70, 81.) Dareius, who held him in the highest esteem, left him behind with an army in Europe, when he himself recrossed the Hellespont, on his return from Seytina, B. C. 506. (Id. 4.143, 144.) Megabazus subdued Perinthus and the other cities on the Hellespont and along the coast of Thrace, which had not yet submitted to the Persian rule, and removed the Paeonians, who dwelt about the Strymon, into Phrygia. (Id. 5.1-16, comp. 98.) He also sent to Amyntas, the king of Macedonia, and demanded earth and water, in token of his submission to Dareius. [For what followed see ALEXANDER I. Vol. I. p. 118.] On his return to Sardis he advised Dareius to recall Histiaeus from Myreinus. [HISTIAEUS.] Herodotus mentions a cel
Mitroba'tes (*Mitroba/ths), a Persian, governor of Dascyleium, is said by Herodotus to have taunted Oroetes, satrap of Sardis, with his allowing Samos to continue free from the Persian yoke. During the disturbed period which followed the death of Cambyses and the usurpation of the Magi (B. C. 521), Oroetes put Mitrobates and his son Cranaspes to death. (Hdt. 3.120, 126, 127.) [E.
Ota'nes (*)Ota/nhs). 1. A nolle and wealthy Persian, son of Pharnaspes. He was the first who suspected the imposture of Smerdis the MIolaian, and, when his suspicion was confirmed by the report of his daughter PHAEDIMA (one of the royal wives), he took the chief part in orgamlizing the conspiracy against the pretender and his faction (B. C. 521). After the slaughter of the Magians, Otanes, according to the statement in Herodotns, recommended the establishment of democracy, and, when his fellow-conspiraltors came to the resolution of retaining monarchy, he alban doned all pretensions to the throne on condition that himself and his descendants should be exempted fiom the royal authority. At the same time it was decreed that to him and his posterity for ever a Median dress and other gifts of honour should be annually presented. Not long after this, Otanes was placed in command of the Persian force which invded Samos for the purpose of placing Syloson, brother of Polycrates, in the gov
and Otanes now persuaded his daughter to ascertain whether her master had really lost his ears. Phaedima undertook the dangerous task, ascertained that the king had no ears, and communicated the decisive information to her father. Otanes thereupon organized a conspiracy to get rid of the pretender, and in conjunction with six other noble Persians, succeeded in forcing his way into the palace, where they slew the false Smerdis and his brother Patizeithes in the eighth month of their reign, B. C. 521. Their death was followed by a general massacre of the Magians. The events which followed, the dissension between the seven conspirators respecting the form of government which should be established in Persia, and the accession of Dareius son of Hystaspes. are related elsewhere. [DAREIUS.] (Hdt. 3.30, 61-79.) The account of Ctesias is very different from that of Herodotus. Ctesias gives the name of Tanyoxarces to the brother of Cambyses, and relates that Cyrus had left him satrap of Bact