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A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith) 9 9 Browse Search
Aristotle, Politics 1 1 Browse Search
Pliny the Elder, The Natural History (ed. John Bostock, M.D., F.R.S., H.T. Riley, Esq., B.A.) 1 1 Browse Search
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Browsing named entities in A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith). You can also browse the collection for 522 BC or search for 522 BC in all documents.

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removed, with the great body of its inhabitants, to Abdera, in Thrace, when Teos was taken by Harpagus, the general of Cyrus (about B. C. 540; Strab. xiv. p.644). The early part of his middle life was spent at Samos, under the patronage of Polycrates, in whose praise Anacreon wrote many songs. (Strab. xiv. p.638; Hdt. 3.121.) He enjoyed very high favour with the tyrant, and is said to have softened his temper by the charms of music. (Maxim. Tyr. Diss. 37.5.) After the death of Polycrates (B. C. 522), he went to Athens at the invitation of the tyrant Hiipparchus, who sent a galley of fifty oars to fetch him. (Plat. Hipparch. p. 228.) At Athens he became acquainted with Simonides and other poets, whom the taste of Hipparchus had collected round him, and he was admitted to intimacy by other noble families besides the Peisistratidae, among whom he especially celebrated the beauty of Critias, the son of Dropides. (Plat. Charm. p. 157; Berghk's Anacreon, fr. 55.) He died at the age of 85,
to be worth one shilling and a penny three farthings) not quite 344l. The next year he went to Athens, where he was paid one hundred minae, i. e. rather more than 406l.; and the year following he removed to the island of Samos in the Aegean sea, and received from Polycrates, the tyrant, the increased salary of two talents, i. e. (if the Attic standard be meant) 487l. 10s. (Hdt. 3.131.) He accompanied Polycrates when he was seized and put to death by Oroetes, the Persian governor of Sardis (B. C. 522), by whom he was himself seized and carried prisoner to Susa to the court of Dareius, the son of Hystaspes. Here he acquired great riches and reputation by curing the king's foot, and the breast of the queen Atossa. (Ibid. 100.133.) It is added by Dion Chrysostom (Dissert. i. De Invid. p. 652, sq.), that Dareius ordered the physicians who had been unable to cure him to be put to death, and that they were saved at the intercession of Democedes. Notwithstanding his honours at the Persian cou
Maea'ndrius (*Maia/ndrios), secretary to Polycrates, tyrant of Samos, was sent by his master to Sardis to see whether the promises of Oroetes, the satrap, might safely be trusted, and was so far deceived as to bring back a favourable report, in consequence of which Polycrates passed over to Asia Minor, leaving Maeandrius in Samos as regent, and, having placed himself in the power of Oroetes, was put to death, in B. C. 522. On receiving intelligence of this event, Maeandrius came forward with a speech, reported by IIerodotus with the most amusing naiveté, in which he expressed his extreme dislike of arbitrary power, and offered to lay it down for certain valuable considerations. But the terms of the proposed bargain being somewhat bluntly rejected, and a hint being given at the same time, by one Telesarchus, of the necessity of an inquiry into the expenditure of the money which had passed through his hands, Maeandrius thought he could not do better than keep the tyranny, and he theref
Oroetes (*)Oroi/ths,) a Persian, was made satrap of Sardis by Cyrus, and retained the government of it till his death. Like many other Persian governors, he seems to have aimed at the establishment of an independent sovereignty, and it was probably as one step towards this that he decoyed POLYCRATES into his power by specious promises, and put him to death in B. C. 522. For this act Herodotus mentions two other motives, not incompatible either with one another or with the one above suggested; but certainly the power of the Samian tyrant would have been a barrier to any schemes of aggrandizement entertained by Oroetes ; and, in fact, Samos, from its position and consequence, would, perhaps, be the natural enemy of any Lydian potentate. Thus, when Amnasis, as a vassal of Babylon, was compelled to take part with Croesus against Cyrus, he found it necessary to abandon his alliance with Polycrates, which, for purposes of commerce, he would, doubtless, have preferred; and the Lacedaemonian
om his own testimony (Fragm. 102, ed. Dissen), during the celebration of the Pythian games. Clinton places his birth in Ol. 65. 3, B. C. 518, Böckh in Ol. 64. 3, B. C. 522, but neither of these dates is certain, though the latter is perhaps the most probable. He probably died in his 80th year, though other accounts make him much younger at the time of his death. If he was born in B. C. 522, his death would fall in B. C. 442. He was in the prime of life at the battles of Marathon and Salamis, and was nearly of the same age as the poet Aeschylus; but, as K. O. Miller has well remarked, the causes which determined Pindar's poetical character are to be sought inur of Hippocles, a Thessalian youth belonging to the powerful Aleuad family, who had gained the prize at the Pythian games. Supposing Pindar to have been born in B. C. 522, this ode was composed in B. C. 502. The next ode of Pindar in point of time is the 6th Pythian, which he wrote in his twenty-seventh year, B. C. 494, in honour
forces accompanied by the exiles sailed against Samos. They laid siege to the city for forty days, but at length despairing of taking it, they abandoned the island, and left the exiles to shift for themselves. The power of Polycrates now became greater than ever. The great works which Herodotus saw and admired at Samos were probably executed by him, He lived in great pomp and luxury, and like some of the other Greek tyrants was a patron of literature and the arts. The most eminent artists and poets found a ready welcome at his court; and his friendship for Anacreon is particularly celebrated. But in the midst of all his prosperity he fell by the most ignominious fate. Oroetes, the satrap of Sardis, had for some reason, which is quite unknown, formed a deadly hatred against Polycrates. By false pretences, the satrap contrived to allure him to the mainland, where he was arrested soon after his arrival, and crucified, B. C. 522. (Hdt. 3.39-47, 54-56, 120-125; Thuc. 1.13 ; Athen. 12.540.)
ty of Theodorus. We proceed therefore to the positive testimonies respecting these artists. The most definitely chronological of these testimonies are the passages in which Herodotus mentions Theodorus as the maker of the silver crater which Croesus sent to Delphi (1.51), and of the celebrated ring of Polycrates (3.41). Now we learn from Herodotus that the silver crater was already at Delphi when the temple was burnt, in Ol. 58. 1, B. C. 548; and Polycrates was put to death in Ol. 64. 3, B. C. 522. Again, with respect to his identity, for this, as well as his date, is a point to be ascertained; in both passages Herodotus makes Theodorus a Samian, and in the latter he calls him the son of Telecles; in both it is implied that he was an artist of high reputation; and, in the former, Herodotus expressly states that he believed the tradition which ascribed the crater to Theodorus, because the work did not appear to be of a common order (sugtuxo/n). Pausanias (8.14.5. s. 8) also mentions