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A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith) 15 15 Browse Search
Pausanias, Description of Greece 2 2 Browse Search
Strabo, Geography 1 1 Browse Search
Pliny the Elder, The Natural History (ed. John Bostock, M.D., F.R.S., H.T. Riley, Esq., B.A.) 1 1 Browse Search
Knight's Mechanical Encyclopedia (ed. Knight) 1 1 Browse Search
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Browsing named entities in A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith). You can also browse the collection for 540 BC or search for 540 BC in all documents.

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henians, for his participation in the attempt of Isagoras in Ol. 67. 2 (B. C. 507); and Anochus (as we learn from Eusebius) was a victor in the games of the 65th Ol. So far everything is clear; and if we suppose Ageladas to have been born about B. C. 540, he may very well have been the instructor of Phidias. On the other hand Pliny (l.c.) says that Ageladas, with Polycletus, Phradmon, and Myron, flourished in the 87th Ol. This agrees with the statement of the scholiast on Aristophanes, that at ories are so nearly the same, would be a very extraordinary coincidence. The most probable solution of the difficulty is that of Thiersch, who thinks that there were two artists of this name; one an Argive, the instructor of Phidias, born about B. C. 540, the other a native of Sicyon, who flourished at the date assigned by Pliny, and was confounded by the scholiast on Aristophanes with his more illustrious namesake of Argos. Thiersch supports this hypothesis by an able criticism on a passage of
Ana'creon (*)Anakre/wn), one of the principal Greek lyric poets, was a native of the Ionian city of Teos, in Asia Minor. The accounts of his life are meagre and confused, but he seems to have spent his youth at his native city, and to have removed, with the great body of its inhabitants, to Abdera, in Thrace, when Teos was taken by Harpagus, the general of Cyrus (about B. C. 540; Strab. xiv. p.644). The early part of his middle life was spent at Samos, under the patronage of Polycrates, in whose praise Anacreon wrote many songs. (Strab. xiv. p.638; Hdt. 3.121.) He enjoyed very high favour with the tyrant, and is said to have softened his temper by the charms of music. (Maxim. Tyr. Diss. 37.5.) After the death of Polycrates (B. C. 522), he went to Athens at the invitation of the tyrant Hiipparchus, who sent a galley of fifty oars to fetch him. (Plat. Hipparch. p. 228.) At Athens he became acquainted with Simonides and other poets, whom the taste of Hipparchus had collected round him,
Aristo'xenus (*)Aristo/cenos). 1. Of Selinus in Sicily, a Greek poet, who is said to have been the first who wrote in anapaestic metres. Respecting the time at which he lived, it is expressly stated that he was older than Epicharnus, from about B. C. 540 to 445. (Schol. ad Aristoph. Plut. 487; Hephaestion, Enchirid. p. 45, ed. Gaisf.) Eusebius (Chron. p. 333, ed. Mai) places him in Ol. 29 (B. C. 664), but this statement requires some explanation. If he was born in that year, he cannot have been a Selinuntian, as Selinus was not founded tillabout B. C. 628. But Aristoxenus may perhaps have been among the first settlers at Selinus, and thus have come to be regarded as a Selinuntia
rus was visited by a season of scarcity, and the Delphic oracle advised the Epidaurians to erect statues of Auxesia and Damia, which were to be made of olive-wood. The Epidaurians therefore asked permission of the Athenians to cut down an Attic olive-tree. The request was granted, on condition that the Epidaurians should every year offer up sacrifices to Athena Agraulos and Erechtheus. When the condition was complied with, the country of Epidaurus again bore fruit as before. Now when about B. C. 540 Aegina separated itself from Epidaurus, which had till then been regarded as its metropolis, the Aeginetans, who had had their sacra in common with the Epidaurians, took away the two statues of Auxesia and Damia, and erected them in a part of their own island called Oea, where they offered sacrifices and celebrated mysteries. When the Epidaurians, in consequence of this, ceased to perform the sacrifices at Athens, and the Athenians heard of the statues being carried to Aegina, they demande
in all probability the earliest Greek historian or logographer. He lived, according to the vague statement of Josephus (c. Apion. 1.2; comp. Clem. Al. Strom. vi. p. 267), very shortly before the Persian invasion of Greece; and Suidas makes the singular statement, that Cadmus was only a little younger than the mythical poet Orpheus, which arises from the thorough confusion of the mythical Cadmus of Phoenicia and the historian Cadmus. But there is every probability that Cadmus lived about B. C. 540. Strabo (i. p.18) places Cadmus first among the three authors whom he calls the earliest prose writers among the Greeks: viz. Cadmus, Pherecydes, and Hecataeus; and from this circumstance we may infer, that Cadmus was the most ancient of the three--an inference which is also confirmed by the statement of Pliny (Plin. Nat. 5.31), who calls Cadmus the first that ever wrote (Greek) prose. When, therefore, in another passage (7.56) Pliny calls Pherecydes the most ancient prose writer, and Cadm
Callon (*Ka/llwn). 1. An artist of the island of Aegina, the pupil of Angelio and Tectaeus, who were themselves pupils of Dipoenus and Scyllis. (Paus. 2.32.4.) As the latter two flourished B. C. 580, the age of Callon must be fixed at B. C. 516. This is confirmed by the statement of Pausanias (7.18.6), that Callon was a contemporary of Canachus, who we know flourished from B. C. 540 to 508. [CANACHUS.] There are two passages in Pausanias which seem to contradict this conclusion; but K. O. Müller (Aeginet. p. 100) and Thiersch (Epoch. Anm. p. 40) have clearly shewn that one of them is interpolated, and that the other, if explained properly, does not place Callon either in the time of the Miessenian wars, or as late as the battle of Aegospotamos, as some interpreters had believed. (Comp. Sillig, Cat. Art. s. v.) We are acquainted with two works of Callon: the tripod ornamented by a statue of Cora and a xoanon of Athene. Quintilian (12.10) calls his works "duriora atque Tuscanicis pro
statue having been carried to Ecbatana by Xerxes after his defeat in Greece, B. C. 479. Müller (Kunstblatt, 1821, N. 16) thinks, that this statue cannot have been executed before B. C. 494, at which time Miletus was destroyed and burnt by Dareius; but Thiersch (l.c.) shews that the colossus might very well have escaped the general ruin, and therefore needs not have been placed there after the destruction of the city. Finding that all indications point to the interval between O1. 60 and 68 (B. C. 540-508), he has given these 32 years as the time during which Canachus flourished. Thus the age of our artist coincides with that of Callon, whose contemporary he is called by Pausanias (7.18.6). He was likewise contemporary with Ageladas, who flourished about O1. 66 [AGELADAS]; for, together with this artist and with his own brother, Aristocles, he executed three Muses, who symbolically represented the diatonic, chromatic, and enharmonic styles of Greek music. Besides these works, we find th
Epicharmus (*)Epi/xarmos), the chief comic poet among the Dorians, was born in the island of Cos about the 60th Olympiad (B. C. 540). His father, Elothales, was a physician, of the race of the Asclepiads, and the profession of medicine seems to have been followed for some time by Epicharmus himself, as well as by his brother. At the age of three months he was carried to Megara, in Sicily; or, according to the account preserved by Suidas, he went thither at a much later period, with Cadmus (B. C. 484). Thence he removed to Syracuse, with the other inhabitants of Megara, when the latter city was destroyed by Gelon (B. C. 484 or 483). Here he spent the remainder of his life, which was prolonged throughout the reign of Hieron, at whose court Epicharmus associated with the other great writers of the time, and among them, with Aeschylus, who seems to have had some influence on his dramatic course. He died at the age of ninety (B. C. 450), or, ac cording to Lucian, ninety-seven (B. C. 443
p.642 ; Clem. Alex. Strom. i. p. 308d.; Procl. Chrestom. ap. Phot. Bibl. 239, p. 319, 29, ed. Bekker; Solin. 40.16.) He is ranked among the writers of the Ionic dialect. (Gram. Leid. ad calcem Gregor. Cor. p. 629; comp. Tzetz. Proleg. ad Lycoph. 690.) The exact date of Hipponax is not agreed upon, but it can be fixed within certain limits. The Parian marble (Ep. 43) makes him contemporary with the taking of Sardis by Cyrus (B. C. 546) : Pliny (36.5. s. 4.2) places him at the 60th Olympiad, B. C. 540: Proclus (l.c.) says that he lived under Dareius (B. C. 521-485) : Eusebius (Chron. Ol. 23), following an error already pointed out by Plutarch (de Mus. 6, vol. ii. p. 1133c. d.), made him a contemporary of Terpander; and Diphilus, the comic poet, was guilty of (or rather he assumed as a poetic licence) the same anachronism in representing both Archilochus and Hipponax as the lovers of Sappho. (Athen. 13.599d.) Hipponax, then, lived in the latter half of the sixth century B. C., about hal
I'bycus (*)/Ibukos), the fifth lyric poet in the Alexandrine canon, was a native of Rhegium. One writer calls him a Messenian, no doubt because the survivors of the second Messenian War formed a considerable portion of the population of Rhegium. His father's name is differently stated, as Phytius, Polyzelus, Cerdas, Eelidas, but Phytius is probably the right name. The best part of his life was spent at Samos, at the court of Polycrates, about Ol. 60, B. C. 540. Suidas erroneously places him twenty years earlier, in the time of Croesus and the father of Polycrates. We have no further accounts of his life, except the well-known story, about which even some doubt has been raised, of the manner of his death. While travelling through a desert place near Corinth, he was attacked by robbers and mortally wounded, but before he died he called upon a flock of cranes that happened to fly over him to avenge his death. Soon afterwards, when the people of Corinth were assembled in the theatre, the
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