via) had his zeka, or house for the coinage of money, in Cordova; he introduced no change in the currency, but retained the dies used in Syria by the Caliphs, who were his predecessors, and made his coins in all respects similar to theirs, . . . excepting what was necessitated by time and place. — Conde.
was the first who had the image of Christ struck on coins, A. D. 710.
The Pope's effigy first occurs on a coin in 1480.
The as libra, in the time of Servius Tullius (550 B. C.), weighed a pound, as its name indicates; by 190 B. C., it had fallen to half an ounce.
Silver was coined 269 B. C., when the denarius weighed 90 grains; in the time of Vespasian, A. D. 70, it had fallen to 53 grains.
The aureus was first issued about 204 B. C., and weighed 166 grains, but had fallen to 96 grains in the time of Heliogabalus, A. D. 218.
The silver coinage of Crotona, 600 B. C., was pure, as was also the gold coinage of Philip of Macedon, 350 B. C. Under Vespasian, A. D
y of astronomy in China is as ancient as the time of Abraham, and the earliest known observations are Chinese (see astronomical instruments), though we have statements of ancient historians that observations quite as ancient were made by the Chaldeans.
The dials commonly used in China are mentioned by Mohammedan travelers in that country in the ninth century.
After all this, it seems idle to quote the saying of Pliny, that the sun-dial was originally invented by Anaximander of Miletus (550 B. C.); but that curious writer, to whose appetite for information we owe so much, felt bound to give an origin for everything.
He might even have read in Homer (950 B. C.), the not very recondite reference to a sun-dial: —
These curious eyes, inscribed with wonder, trace The sun's diurnal and his annual race.
The building in Athens long known as the Tower of the winds is now known as the Horological monument of Andronicus Cyrrhestes.
It had eight faces, each provided with a gnomon an
the grain outwardly.
They are fed with emery-cake; and by cutlers the wooden surface is frequently used without any leather covering.
A sphere on which is represented the heavenly bodies; a celestial globe.
A round model of the world, representing the land and sea, and usually the political divisions.
A terrestrial globe.
A celestial globe was taken from Egypt to Greece, 368 B. C. A terrestrial globe is said to have been made in the time of Anaximander of Miletus, about 550 B. C. This is highly improbable.
The determination of the latitude and longitude of places was of a later date, and is a necessary incident of a terrestrial globe.
The celestial globe of Billarus was taken away from Sinope by Lucullus (Strabo). The same writer mentions the sphere of Crates; Cicero that of Archimedes.
Perhaps this was a planetarium.
The planisphere of Dendera in Egypt is a circular diagram of the zodiacal signs, and the most ancient and interesting of all representations