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A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith) 19 19 Browse Search
Diodorus Siculus, Library 2 2 Browse Search
Aristotle, Politics 1 1 Browse Search
Herodotus, The Histories (ed. A. D. Godley) 1 1 Browse Search
Strabo, Geography 1 1 Browse Search
Strabo, Geography (ed. H.C. Hamilton, Esq., W. Falconer, M.A.) 1 1 Browse Search
Pliny the Elder, The Natural History (ed. John Bostock, M.D., F.R.S., H.T. Riley, Esq., B.A.) 1 1 Browse Search
M. Tullius Cicero, De Officiis: index (ed. Walter Miller) 1 1 Browse Search
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Browsing named entities in A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith). You can also browse the collection for 560 BC or search for 560 BC in all documents.

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Ariston (*)Ari/stwn), king of Sparta, 14th of the Eurypontids, son of Agesicles, contemporary of Anaxandrides, ascended the Spartan throne before B. C. 560, and died somewhat before (Paus. 3.7), or at any rate not long after, 510. He thus reigned about 50 years, and was of high reputation, of which the public prayer for a son for him, when the house of Procles had other representatives, is a testimony. Demaratus, hence named, was borne him, after two barren marriages, by a third wife, whom he obtained, it is said, by a fraud from her husband, his friend, Agetus. (Hdt. 1.65, 6.61-66 ; Paus. 3.7.7; Plut. Apophth. Lac.) [A.H.
Bion (*Bi/wn). 1. Of Proconnesus, a contemporary of Pherecydes of Syros, who consequently lived about B. C. 560. He is mentioned by Diogenes Laertius (4.58) as the author of two works which he does not specify; but we must infer from Clemens of Alexandria (Strom. vi. p. 267), that one of these was an abridgement of the work of the ancient historian, Cadmus of Miletu
Hera at Samos, which was built about the same time by the Dorian colonies. The preparation of the foundations was commenced about B. C. 600. To guard against earthquakes, a marsh was chosen for the site of the temple, and the ground was made firm by layers of charcoal rammed down, over which were laid fleeces of wool. This contrivance was suggested by Theodorus of Samos. [THEODORUS.] The work proceeded very slowly. The erection of the columns did not take place till about 40 years later. (B. C. 560.) This date is fixed by the statement of Herodotus (1.92), that most of the pillars were presented by Croesus. This therefore is the date of Chersiphron, since it is to him and to his son Metagenes that the ancient writers attribute the erection of the pillars and the architrave. Of course the plan could not be extended after the erection of the pillars; and therefore, when Strabo (xiv. p.640) says, that the temple was enlarged by another architect, he probably refers to the building of th
Cleobu'lus (*Kleo/boulos), one of the Seven Sages, was son of Evagoras and a citizen of Lindus in Rhodes, for Duris seems to stand alone in stating that he was a Carian. (D. L. 1.89 ; Strab. xiv. p.655.) He was a contemporary of Solon's, and must have lived at least as late as B. C. 560 (the date of the usurpation of Peisistratus), if the letter preserved in Diogenes Laertius is genuine, which purports to have been written by Cleobulus to Solon, inviting him to Lindus, as a place of refuge from the tyrant. In the same letter Lindus is mentioned as being under democratic government; but Clement of Alexandria (Strom. 4.19) calls Cleobulus king of the Lindians, and Plutarch (de *Ei) ap. Delph. 3) speaks of him as a tyrant. These statements may, however, be reconciled, by supposing him to have held, as ai)sumnh/ths, an authority delegated by the people through election. (Arist. Polit. 3.14, 15, ad fin. 4.10, ed. Bekk.) Much of the philosophy of Cleobulus is said to have been derived fro
Croesus (*Kroi=sos), the last king of Lydia, of the family of the Mermnadae, was the soi of Alvattes; his mother was a Carian. At the age of thirty-five, he succeeded his father in the kingdom of Lydia. (B. C. 560.) Difficulties have been raised about this date, and there are very strong reasons for believing that Croesus was associated in the kingdom during his father's life, and that the earlier events of his reign, as recorded by Herodotus, belong to this period of joint government. (Clinton F. H. ii. pp. 297, 298.) We are expressly told that he was made satrap of Adramyttium and the plain of Thebe about B. C. 574 or 572. (Nicol. Damasc. p. 243, ed. Cor., supposed to be taken from the Lydian history of Xanthus; Fischer, Griechische Zeittafeln, s. a. 572 B. C.) He made war first on the Ephesians, and afterwards on the other Ionian and Aeolian cities of Asia Minor, all of which he reduced to the payment of tribute. He was meditating an attempt to subdue the insular Greeks also, when
attempting any foreign conquest, Deioces died, and was succeeded by his son, Phraortes. (Hdt. 1.95-102.) There are considerable difficulties in settling the chronology of the Median empire. Herodotus gives the reigns as follows: Deioces 53 years. (1.102.) Phraortes 22 22 (ibid.) Cyaxares 40 40 (1.106.)* Astyages 35 35 (1.130.)   -----     Total, 150     * Including the 28 years of the Scythian rule, su\n toi=si *Sku/qai h)=rcan. Now, since the accession of Cyrus was in B. C. 560-559, the accession of Deioces would fall in B. C. 710-709, which is confirmed by Diodorus (2.32), who says that, "according to Herodotus, Cyaxares [meaning Deioces] was chosen king in the second year of the 17th Olympiad." (B. C. 711-710.) It also agrees with what may be inferred from Scripture, and is expressly stated by Josephus (J. AJ 10.2), that the Medes revolted after the destruction of the army of Sennacherib, and the death of that king. (B. C. 711.) Moreover, the Lydian dynasty o
Endoeus (*)/Endoios), an Athenian statuary, is called a disciple of Daedalus, whom he is said to have accompanied when he fled to Crete. This statement must be taken to express, not the time at which he lived, but the style of art which he practised. It is probable that he lived at the same period as Dipoenus and Scyllis, who are in the same way called disciples of Daedalus, namely, in the time of Peisistratus and his sons, about B. C. 560. (Thiersch, Epochen, pp. 124, 125.) His works were : 1. In the acropolis at Athens a sitting statue of Athena, in olive-wood, with an inscription to the effect that Callias dedicated it, and Endoeus made it. Hence his age is inferred, for the first Callias who is mentioned in history is the opponent of Peisistratus. (Hdt. 6.121.) 2. In the temple of Athena Polias at Erythrae in Ionia, a colossal wooden statue of the goddess, sitting on a throne, holding a distaff in each hand, and having a sun-dial (po/los) on the head. 3. In connexion with this st
(see Dict. of Ant. s. v. ), who, according to the story, enabled his countrymen to fulfil the oracle, which had made their conquest of Tegea conditional on their obtaining thence the bones of Orestes. Lichas, having gone to Tegea in the course of his mission, discovered the existence of a gigantic coffin under a blacksmith's shop,-- a place answering remarkably to the enigmatical description of the oracle. He reported this at home, and, his countrymen having pretended to banish him, he came again to Tegea, persuaded the smith to let him his house, and having dug up the bones, returned with them to Sparta. From this time the Spartans were always victorious over the Tegeans. The date of the everts, with which the above tale is connected, we do not know with accuracy; but they occurred early in the reign of Anaxandrides and Ariston, which began probably about B. C. 560. (Hdt. 1.67, 68; Larcher, ad loc. ; Paus. 3.3, 11, 8.5; comp. Clinton, F. H. vol. i. pp. 92, 102, 339, vol. ii. p. 207.)
Lycurgus (*Lukou=rgos). 1. An Athenian, son of Aristolaidas, was the leader of the high oligarchical party, or the party of the plain, while those of the coast and the highlands were headed respectively by Megacles, the Alcmaeonid, and Peisistratus. The government having been usurped by Peisistratus, in B. C. 560, Megacles and Lycurgus coalesced and drove him out in B. C. 554. But they then renewed their dissensions with one another, and the consequence was the restoration of Peisistratus, in B. C. 548, by marriage with the daughter of Megacles. He treated the lady, however, as only nominally his wife, and the Alcmaeonidae, indignant at the insult, again made common cause with Lycurgus, and expelled Peisistratus for the second time, in B. C. 547. (Her. 1.59, &c
date which is not inconsistent with the story of Chilon and Hippocrates [HIPPOCRATES], for the former, who was ephor in B. C. 560, was already an old man in B. C. 572 (D. L. 1.68, 72). Peisistratus grew up equally distinguished for personal beautyvance of the people Peisistratus took this opportunity of raising a much larger force, with which he seized the citadel B. C. 560. (Plut. Sol. 30; Hdt. 1.59; Aristot. Pol. 5.10; D. L. 1.66; Polyaen. 1.21.3.) A similar stratagem had been practised bys; his sons holding the tyranny after him for eighteen years, making thirty-five years in all. His tyranny commenced in B. C. 560; his death happened in B. C. 527. He had three distinct periods of government, with two periods of exile, the latter am teeth were then so loose from age that one of them dropped out when he sneezed). That Hippias was born before the year B. C. 560 is also shown by the fragments of the poetry of Solon, in which, immediately after the capture of the citadel by Peisis
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