attempts to anticipate or defeat the natural inclinations of these little Hymenopteras are only partially successful.
A fermented infusion of malted grain, to which hops is usually added.
The term is also applied to beverages made of infusions of roots and herbs.
When the vine would not grow and be fruitful, Osiris taught the inhabitants to make drink of barley, little inferior in strength and pleasant flavor to wine itself.
— Diodorus Siculus (60 B. C.).
Hecataeus, in his Description of the world, refers to the Egyptian beer.
Sophocles and Aeschylus also.
The latter, —
And after this he drank his beer, and much And loudly bragged
Athenaeus says that Thracians and Paeonians drank of barley-wine, or a similar drink made from millet or other grain.
Polybius describes the palace of one of the Spanish kings as being [furnished with] huge silver and gold goblets full of the wine made of barley. — Athenaeus.
Aristotle says <
p to be boarded.
A grappling-hook was suspended from the end of the staging.
By this means of approach the Romans boarded the Carthaginian vessels, and achieved success in several naval engagements.
A corvus was also used as a true crane for picking off soldiers garrisoning a city wall, and setting them down outside.
It is described by Tacitus:—
The stones of the pyramids were raised by making mounds of earth; cranes and other engines not being known at that time. — Diodorus Siculus (60 B. C.).
The old Dutch crane, which was also in use in England till the early part of the present century, was operated by a tread-wheel, around which the rope was wound; the rope then passed over guiderollers to the jib of the crane, which projected over the hatchway of the ship and turned upon a pivot, so that it could move round about three fourths of a circle, and so deliver the goods upon the quay.
In order to lower the goods the men walked backward; but as it sometimes happe
st intercalate every other year a whole month, but the Egyptians, dividing the year into twelve months of thirty days each, and every year a space of five days [and a quarter] besides, whereby the circuit of the seasons is made to return with uniformity. — Herodotus II. 4.
These [Egyptians] of Thebes seem most accurately to have observed the eclipses of the sun and moon; and from them do so manage their prognostications that they certainly foretell every future event. — Diodorus Siculus (60 B. C.).
The Egyptians had the true heliocentric theory of the solar system, which the Greeks could not receive, and which was revived twenty centuries afterwards by Copernicus.
It was a great event for Europe when Psammeticus, about 650 B. C., opened the ports of Egypt to the other Mediterranean nations, and encouraged the Ionians and Carians to settle there.
The horoscopus, who occupied the second place in the procession of the Egyptian priests, carried a horologium, or sun-dial.
esting over a spring, so that the fork can be adjusted to any sized fruit.
In Egypt is a fruit called persica, of wonderful sweetness.
This was brought out of Ethiopia by the Persians when Cambyses conquered these places. — Diodorus Siculus (60 B. C.).
Rather say, brought by the Persians from home.
They brought little with them from Ethiopia except disgrace.
The peach (Persica) is Persian.
It was introduced from the East into Europe by the Arabs.
Its congeners, the nectarine and apricmanner we consider essential to good husbandry on our soils.
Some of the Egyptians lightly run over the surface of the earth with a plow, after the water is fallen, and gain a mighty crop without any great cost or pains. — Diodorus Siculus (60 B. C.).
The paintings in the Memphis pyramids show plows with one and others with two handles.
It cannot be said that they pos- sess a mold-board; they rather resemble our shovel-plow, and by going over the ground a sufficient number of times wo
ored spots upon a blue ground.
Also known as the resist-style.
1. A pond for containing a supply of water for canal supply, irrigation, or the use of dwellers in cities.
A reservoir erected by Nebuchadnezzar at Sippara was 140 miles in circumference.
The lake of Maeris, constructed by the Pharaoh of that name to receive the superabundant waters of the Nile at the time of overflow, and afterward yield them for prolonged irrigation, was described by Diodorus Siculus (60 B. C.) as existing till his day. The circuit he gives, 3,600 furlongs, is almost incredible.
The canal connecting it with the river was 80 furlongs long and 300 feet wide.
Sluices commanded the water-way by opening and shutting.
The reservoir on Mill River, Mass., which burst with immense damage to life and property, May 16, 1874, was an artificial lake between high hills.
The confining dam at the lower end was a stone-wall five and a half feet thick at bottom, three feet at the top, and 25
w may have been the water-screw of Archimedes, about 236 B. C.
The Egyptians have an easy way to water the land by means of a certain engine invented by Archimedes, the Syracusan, which, from its form, is called cochlea. — Diodorus Siculus (60 B. C.).
It is believed that Archimedes designed the wheel to be moved by the current of the Nile, and it is certainly capable of being moved by a current of sufficient speed, or one deflected by wing dams to act upon the floats of the wheel.
Exing vessels from one level to another in canal or slackwater navigation, or in overcoming shallows or bars of rivers.
The most ancient on record is that of the canal of Pharaoh Necho, which united the Red Sea with the Nile.
Diodorus Siculus (60 B. C.) states that this had sluices or gates ingeniously contrived, which opened to afford ships a passage through and then quickly shut again.
He speaks of the canal as constructed by Necos, the son of Psammeticus, afterward partially restored by