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A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith) 8 8 Browse Search
Pliny the Elder, The Natural History (ed. John Bostock, M.D., F.R.S., H.T. Riley, Esq., B.A.) 2 2 Browse Search
Knight's Mechanical Encyclopedia (ed. Knight) 2 2 Browse Search
Strabo, Geography (ed. H.C. Hamilton, Esq., W. Falconer, M.A.) 1 1 Browse Search
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Strabo, Geography (ed. H.C. Hamilton, Esq., W. Falconer, M.A.), BOOK I., CHAPTER II. (search)
s river were known to our poet, as we have shown in this defence, when he applies this epithet to the Nile, it must only be understood in the way we have explained. Homer did not think it worth mentioning, especially to those who were acquainted with the fact, that the Nile had many mouths, since this is a common feature of numerous other rivers. AlcæusAlcæus of Mitylene in the island of Lesbos, the earliest of the Æolian lyric poets, began to flourish in the forty-second Olympiad (B. C. 610). In the second year of this Olympiad we find Cicis and Antimenidas, the brothers of Alcæus, fighting under Pittacus against Melanchrus, who is described as the tyrant of Lesbos, and who fell in the conflict. Alcæus does not appear to have taken part with his brothers on this occasion; on the contrary, he speaks of Melanchrus in terms of high praise. Alcæus is mentioned in connexion with the war in Troas, between the Athenians and Mitylenæans, for the possession of Sigæum. During the per
Pliny the Elder, The Natural History (ed. John Bostock, M.D., F.R.S., H.T. Riley, Esq., B.A.), BOOK II. AN ACCOUNT OF THE WORLD AND THE ELEMENTS., CHAP. 113.—THE HARMONICAL PROPORTION OF THE UNIVERSE. (search)
0, and 24, speaks of several writings of Pythagoras, and Diogenes Laertius mentions others; but it is more generally supposed that he wrote nothing, and that everything that passed by his name in ancient times was spurious. Philosophers, PosidoniusA Stoic philosopher of Apamea in Syria. He was the instructor of Cicero, and the friend of Pompey. He wrote works on history, divination, the tides, and the nature of the gods. Some fragments only have survived., AnaximanderOf Miletus, was born B.C. 610, and was the successor of Thales, the founder of the Ionian school of philosophy. He is said to have first taught the obliquity of the ecliptic and the use of the gnomon., EpigenesA philosopher of Rhodes or Byzantium. Seneca says that he boasted of having studied astronomy among the Chaldeans. He is mentioned by Varro and Columella as having written on rural matters, and is praised by Censorinus. the philosopher who wrote on Gnomonics, EuclidOf Alexandria, the great geometrician, and instruct
Pliny the Elder, The Natural History (ed. John Bostock, M.D., F.R.S., H.T. Riley, Esq., B.A.), BOOK IV. AN ACCOUNT OF COUNTRIES, NATIONS, SEAS, TOWNS, HAVENS, MOUNTAINS, RIVERS, DISTANCES, AND PEOPLES WHO NOW EXIST OR FORMERLY EXISTED., CHAP. 37. (23.)—THE GENERAL MEASUREMENT OF EUROPE. (search)
im a portion of his account of the Pelasgians. He is said to have been the author of the notion that the Tyrrhenians, in consequence of their wanderings after they left their original settlement, got the name of pelargoi\, or "storks." He is supposed to have written a History of Lesbos, as also a work called "Historical Paradoxes.", Alexander PolyhistorSee end of B. iii., ThucydidesSee end of B. iii., DosiadesOf this author nothing whatever seems to be known., AnaximanderOf Miletus, born B.C. 610. One of the earliest philosophers of the Ionian school, and said to be a pupil of Thales. Unless Pherecydes of Scyros be an exception, he was the first author of a philosophical treatise in Greek prose. Other writings are ascribed to him by Suidas; but, no doubt, on insufficient grounds. Of his treatise, which seems to have contained summary statements of his opinions, no remains exist., Philistides MallotesOf this writer nothing whatever is known, beyond the fact that, from his name, he seem
Anaximander (*)Anaci/mandros) of Miletus, the son of Praxiades, born B. C. 610 (Apollod. apud Diog. Laert. 2.1, 2), was one of the earliest philosophers of the Ionian school, and is commonly said to have been instructed by his friend and countryman Thales, its first founder. (Cic. Ac. 2.37; Simplic. in Aristot. Phys. lib. i. fol. 6, a, ed. Aid.) Works He was the first author of a philosophical treatise in Greek prose, unless Pherecydes of Syros be an exception. (Themist. Orat. xxvi.) His work consisted, according to Diogenes, of summary statements of his opinions (pepoi/htai kefalaiw/dh th\n e)/kqesin), and was accidentally found by Apollodorus. Suidas gives the titles of several treatises supposed to have been written by him ; but they are evidently either invented, or derived from a misunderstanding of the expressions of earlier writers. Philosophy The early Ionian philosophy did not advance beyond the contemplation of the sensible world. But it was not in any proper sense ex
Asty'ages (*)Astua/ghs), king of Media, (called by Ctesias *)Astui+ga=s, and by Diodorus *)Aspa/das), was the son and successor of Cyaxares. The accounts of this king given by Herodotus, Ctesias, and Xenophon, differ in several important particulars. We learn from Herodotus (1.74), that in the compact made between Cyaxares and Alyattes in B. C. 610, it was agreed that Astyages should marry Aryenis, the daughter of Alyattes. According to the chronology of Herodotus, he succeeded his father in B. C. 595, and reigned 35 years. (1.130.) His government was harsh. (1.123.) Alarmed by a dream, he gave his daughter Mandane in marriage to Cambyses, a Persian of good family. (1.107.) Another dream induced him to send Harpagus to destroy the offspring of this marriage. The child, the future conqueror of the Medes, was given to a herdsman to expose, but he brought it up as his own. Years afterwards, circumstances occurred which brought the young Cyrus under the notice of Astyages, who, on inquir
, by others as low as 585. But of all the eclipses between these two dates, several are absolutely excluded by circumstances of time, place, and extent, and on the whole it seems most probable that the eclipse intended was that of September 30, B. C. 610. (Baily, in the Philosophical Transactions for 1811; Oltmann in the Schrift. der Brel. Acad. 1812-13; Hales, Analysis of Chronology, i. pp. 74-78; Ideler, Handbuch der Chronologie, i. p. 209, &c.; Fischer, Griechische Zeilttafeln, s. a. 610.) Te dominion of the Scythians over Media rather consisted in constant predatory incursions from positions which they had taken in the northern part of the country, than in any permanent occupation thereof. It was probably, then, from B. C. 615 to B. C. 610 that the war between the Lydians and the Medians lasted, till, both parties being terrified by the eclipse, the two kings accepted the mediation of Syennesis, king of Cilicia, and Labynetus, king of Babylon (probably Nebuchadnezzar or his fathe
, by others as low as 585. But of all the eclipses between these two dates, several are absolutely excluded by circumstances of time, place, and extent, and on the whole it seems most probable that the eclipse intended was that of September 30, B. C. 610. (Baily, in the Philosophical Transactions for 1811; Oltmann in the Schrift. der Brel. Acad. 1812-13; Hales, Analysis of Chronology, i. pp. 74-78; Ideler, Handbuch der Chronologie, i. p. 209, &c.; Fischer, Griechische Zeilttafeln, s. a. 610.) Te dominion of the Scythians over Media rather consisted in constant predatory incursions from positions which they had taken in the northern part of the country, than in any permanent occupation thereof. It was probably, then, from B. C. 615 to B. C. 610 that the war between the Lydians and the Medians lasted, till, both parties being terrified by the eclipse, the two kings accepted the mediation of Syennesis, king of Cilicia, and Labynetus, king of Babylon (probably Nebuchadnezzar or his fathe
ith Jerusalem, according to the usual opinion, since that place lay far out of the line of his progress (See Ewing in the Classical Museum, vol. ii. p. 93, &c.) But the objection vanishes if we suppose it to have been taken by one of his generals immediately after the battle with Josiah, or afterwards by himself on his triumphant return homeward from the Euphrates, when we know that he deposed Jehoahaz and placed Eliakim (Jehoiakim) on the throne of Judah, as the tributary vassal of Egypt, B. C. 610. In the fourth year of the reign of Jehoiakim, B. C. 606, Nebuchadnezzar attacked Carchemish, defeated Necho, who had marched thither to meet him, and, advancing onward with uninterrupted success, reduced to subjection all the country between "the river of Egypt" and the Euphrates. He would appear also to have invaded Egypt itself. From this period certainly Necho made no effort to recover what he had lost, if we except a preparation for war with Babylon (B. C. 603, the third year of Jehoi
Sye'nnesis 1. A king of Cilicia, who joined with Labynetus (Nebuchadnezzar) in mediating between Cyaxares and Alyattes, the kings respectively of Media and Lydia, probably in B. C. 610. (Hdt. 1.74 ; comp. Grote's Greece, vol. iii. pp. 311, 312.)
ding, and gave a certain steadiness to the needle. Vasco da Gama, who circumnavigated Africa, doubling the Cape of Good Hope, November 20, 1497, testifies his surprise at meeting in the Indian Ocean seven small Arab vessels provided with the compass, quadrants, sea-charts, and other instruments, equal to the Portuguese. We do not wonder, for the China seas had been navigated by their aid over 1,000 years when the brave navigator repeated the feat of the mariners of Pharaoh Necho, about 610 B. C. The gimbal-joint and compass-box were invented by the Rev. William Barlowe in 1608. The dip of the needle was discovered by Robert Norman of London, 1576; the diurnal variation, by Graham, a London watchmaker, in 1722. An azimuth compass is one used at sea for finding the horizonal distance of the sun or a star from the magnetic meridian. Lord Caithness has substituted for the gimbals a pendulum and a ball; the latter working in a socket in the center of the bottom of the compa
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