n upon modes of lowering and winding, having especial reference to shading sidewalks and show-windows.
Some devices, however, have been intended for window-shades, and are modified in shape and mode of operation to suit their location.
Awnings of linen were first used by the Romans in the theater, when Q. Catulus dedicated the Temple of Jupiter, B. C. 69.
After this, Lentulus Spinther is said to have first introduced cotton awnings in the theater at the Apollinarian Games, July 6, B. C. 63; they were red, yellow, and iron-gray.
By and by, Caesar the Dictator covered with awnings the whole Roman Forum, and the Sacred Way, from his own house to the ascent of the Capitoline Hill; this was 46 B. C., and is said to have appeared more wonderful than the gladiatorial exhibition itself.
Afterward, without exhibiting games, Marcellus, the son of Octavia, sister of Augustus, when he was aedile and his uncle consul the eleventh time, on the day before the Kalends of August, July 31, 23 B
s the cotton-plant as the wool-bearing tree, and stated that its capsules contained seeds, which were taken out, and that what remained was combed like wool.
Nearchus, Alexander's famous navigator, also refers to it, and says that the shirts, mantles, and turbans of the people of India were made of it. Strabo, on the authority of Nearchus, refers to the fabrics of cotton as being flowered and beautifully dyed.
An awning of cotton was spread over the theater by Lentulus Spinther, July 6, 63 B. C. Linen had been formerly used.
Pliny mentions cotton in four places in his Natural History; two refer to the account of Theophrastus, one to the carbasa (cotton) of Spain, one to the cotton of Egypt: —
In Upper Egypt, towards Arabia, there grows a shrub, which some call gossypium, and others xylon, from which the stuffs are made that we call xylina. It is small, and bears a fruit resembling the filbert, within which is a downy wool which is spun into thread.
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