portraits, are the Macedonian series, commencing with Alexander, the son of Amyntas.
One form of Greek money, before the introduction of coin, was in skewers, of which six formed a handful.
An early gold coin was the Persian darlic e, Fig. 1382, which weighed about 130 grains troy.
Silver coins in imitation were struck by Aryandes, governor of Egypt under the Persians, for which act he was condemned to death.
Silver is said to have been coined by Phedon of Argos, 750 B. C. Gold by Philip of Macedon, 340 B. C. Servius Tullius coined copper money, 578 B. C. Silver was coined at Athens, 512 B. C.; at Rome, 269 B. C. Iron was coined by Lycurgus, 884 B. C. Plutarch says it required a cart and two oxen to draw the small sum of 10 minae, about $28.
It is said that the coin of Philip of Macedon was the first that was alloyed; it was done to harden it, and make it wear better.
Coined money was first cited in those portions of the Hebrew Scriptures written afte
or that is the last we hear of it.
The penteconter is mentioned by Herodotus (I. 152). It had 50 rowers, who sat 25 on a side, on thwarts of the same level.
The navy of Polycrates consisted of penteconters.
Biremes, where the rowers sat in 2 ranks, on different levels, were probably invented by the Phoenicians, and were known to the Assyrians in the time of Sennacherib.
One is represented in the palace of that monarch at Kouyunjik.
Triremes were invented by the Corinthians about 750 B. C.
Fig 5000 is a view of a Roman biremis, or two-banked galley.
The Romans, by the account of Livy, first became aware of the importance of a fleet during the second Samnite war, B. C. 311.
As their colonies spread, especially when the Pontian Islands were embraced in their bounds, the necessity grew.
In the time of the first Punic war the Romans became a maritime power, clearly foreseeing that in default of a navy Carthage could not be subdued.
See also Smith's Dicti