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A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith) 31 31 Browse Search
J. B. Greenough, G. L. Kittredge, Select Orations of Cicero , Allen and Greenough's Edition. 5 5 Browse Search
Samuel Ball Platner, Thomas Ashby, A Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome 3 3 Browse Search
J. B. Greenough, G. L. Kittredge, Select Orations of Cicero , Allen and Greenough's Edition. 2 2 Browse Search
Frank Frost Abbott, Commentary on Selected Letters of Cicero 1 1 Browse Search
J. B. Greenough, G. L. Kittredge, Select Orations of Cicero , Allen and Greenough's Edition. 1 1 Browse Search
J. B. Greenough, G. L. Kittredge, Select Orations of Cicero , Allen and Greenough's Edition. 1 1 Browse Search
Titus Livius (Livy), Ab Urbe Condita, books 8-10 (ed. Benjamin Oliver Foster, Ph.D.) 1 1 Browse Search
Pliny the Elder, The Natural History (ed. John Bostock, M.D., F.R.S., H.T. Riley, Esq., B.A.) 1 1 Browse Search
Appian, The Civil Wars (ed. Horace White) 1 1 Browse Search
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Appian, Mithridatic Wars (ed. Horace White), CHAPTER X (search)
CHAPTER X New Troubles brewing--Mithridates forms an Alliance with Sertorius and prepares for War--Makes a Speech to his Troops--Invades Bithynia Y.R. 674 As Mithridates was now at leisure he subdued the B.C. 80 tribes of the Bosporus and appointed Machares, one of his sons, king over them. Then he fell upon the Achæans beyond Colchis (who are supposed to be descended from those who lost their way when returning from the Trojan war), but lost two divisions of his army, partly by open war, partly by the severity of the climate, and partly by stratagem. When he returned home he sent ambassadors to Rome to sign the agreements. At the same time Ariobarzanes, either of his own notion or at the prompting of others, sent thither to complain that Cappadocia had not been delivered up to him, but that a greater part of it was yet retained by Mithridates. Sulla commanded Mithridates to give up Cappadocia. He did so, and then sent another embassy to sign the agreements. Bu
Appian, The Civil Wars (ed. Horace White), THE CIVIL WARS, CHAPTER XII (search)
CHAPTER XII Sulla's Abdication--Character of Sulla--His Death, and Funeral Y.R. 674 The following year Sulla, although he was dictator, B.C. 80 undertook the consulship a second time, with Metellus Pius for his colleague, in order to preserve the pretence and form of democratic government. It is perhaps from this example that the Roman emperors now make a showing of consuls to the country and even exhibit themselves in that capacity, considering it not unbecoming to hold the office of consul in connection with the supreme power. The next year the people, in order to pay court to Sulla, chose him consul again, but he refused the office and nominated Servilius Isauricus and Claudius Pulcher for their suffrages, and voluntarily laid down the supreme power, although nobody was troubling him. This act seems wonderful to me--that Sulla should have been the first, and till then the only one, to
Pliny the Elder, The Natural History (ed. John Bostock, M.D., F.R.S., H.T. Riley, Esq., B.A.), BOOK II. AN ACCOUNT OF THE WORLD AND THE ELEMENTS., CHAP. 113.—THE HARMONICAL PROPORTION OF THE UNIVERSE. (search)
., Cælius AntipaterA Roman historian and lawyer, who flourished about B.C. 124. He wrote a Book of Annals, in which was contained a valuable account of the Second Punic war. This work was epitomized by Brutus and held in high estimation by the Emperor Adrian., FabianusFabianus Papirius, a Roman rhetorician and naturalist, whose works are highly commended by Pliny and Seneca. He wrote a History of Animals, and a book on Natural Causes., AntiasQuintus Valerius Antias. He flourished about B.C. 80, and wrote the Annals of Rome, down to the time of Sylla., MucianusMarcus Licinius Crassus Mucianus. He was instrumental in raising the Emperor Vespasian to the throne, and was Consul in the years A.D. 52, 70, and 74. He published three Books of Epistles, and a History in eleven Books, which appears to have treated chiefly of Eastern affairs., CæcinaAulus Cæcina. He was sent into exile by Cæsar, joined the Pompeians in Africa, and was taken prisoner by Cæsar, but his life was spared. Cicero wr
Titus Livius (Livy), The History of Rome, Book 10 (ed. Benjamin Oliver Foster, Ph.D.), chapter 37 (search)
all the binding force with him —and ever would have of any orders whatsoever. and so, on the following day, with the support of three tribunes of the plebs, against the opposition of seven who forbade the proceedings and a unanimous senate, Postumius triumphed, with the people thronging in attendance. of this year, too, the tradition is uncertain.Compare chap. xxvi. §§ 5-7, and chap. xxx. §§ 4-7. Postumius, if we follow Claudius,Q. Claudius Quadrigarius composed his annals about 80 B.C. , covering the period from the Gallic invasion to his own times. after capturing several cities in Samnium, was defeated in Apulia and put to flight, and, being wounded himself, was forced to take refuge with a few followers in Luceria; while Atilius campaigned in Etruria and obtained a triumph. FabiusQ. Fabius Pictor was a contemporary of Hannibal and wrote an annalistic history of Rome in Greek. writes that both consuls fought in Samnium and at Luceria; that the army was led over in<
J. B. Greenough, G. L. Kittredge, Select Orations of Cicero , Allen and Greenough's Edition., Life of Cicero. (search)
ake sides. To defend Quinctius was a bold undertaking for a young advocate; for the opposing counsel was the great orator Hortensius, backed by powerful influence on behalf of the plaintiff. The case, too, was a somewhat dry one; but Cicero's skill as an advocate is shown by the fact that he raises it above the ordinary business and technical level into a question of universal justice and the rights of common humanity. Next year occurred the trial of Sextus Roscius of Ameria for parricide (B.C. 80), a case growing out of the abuses of Sulla's dictatorship. See pp. 1, 2, below (Introduction to the Oration). Cicero showed his courage by undertaking the defence, and his forensic skill by converting his plea into a powerful attack on the accusers in the regular manner of Roman invective. In B.C. 79 he came into still more daring antagonism with Sulla in the case of a woman of Arretium. The oration has not come down to us, but from its boldness it must have added greatly to the orator's f
J. B. Greenough, G. L. Kittredge, Select Orations of Cicero , Allen and Greenough's Edition., The Roman Constitution. (search)
up by the Censors at their discretion from among those who had held high magistracies. But after the reforms of Sulla (B.C. 80) every person who had held the quaestorship —the lowest grade of the regular magistracy (see below, p. lix) was lawfulls and was equivalent to a declaration of martial law. 4 see note on Cat. 1.2 (p. 100, l. 12). After the Sullan reforms (B.C. 80) the consuls did not receive the military imperium until their year of office had expired and they were about to set outum for a second year became regular. After the time of Sulla, all provinces were so governed, After the Sullan reforms (B.C. 80) the military imperium was not enjoyed by the consuls and praetors until their year of civil magistracy had expired. ons contended for the control of the courts. Sulla restored to the Senators the exclusive privilege of sitting as judices (B.C. 80), but the Aurelian Law (B.C. 70) provided that the jurors should be taken, one-third from the Senators and two-thirds fr
J. B. Greenough, G. L. Kittredge, Select Orations of Cicero, Allen and Greenough's Edition., section 1 (search)
tting pronouns in contrast that one is often (as here) expressed for the mere purpose of antithesis. judices: not judges, but rather jurors. They were persons selected by law to try facts (under the presidency of a praetor or judex quaestionis), and varied in number from a single one to fifty or more. They were originally selected from the Senators, but C. Gracchus had transferred the right to sit as judices to the equites or wealthy middle class). Sulla, whose reforms went into operation B.C. 80, had restored this right to the Senators, and the present case was the first to occur under the new system. It was brought in the Quaestio inter sicarios (or court for the trial of murder), under the presidency of the praetor M. Fannius. quid sit quod. Why it is that. quod (causal) . . . surrexerim expresses a fact, and takes the subj. of informal ind. disc. as depending on the indirect question quid sit. § 592, 1 (341, b); cf. B. 323; G. 663.1; H. 652 (529,ii) H-B. 535, I, a. summi o
J. B. Greenough, G. L. Kittredge, Select Orations of Cicero , Allen and Greenough's Edition., chapter 4 (search)
prevail. necessitudinem religionemque:the quaestor was originally nominated specially by the consul; and the peculiarly close and sacred relation (necessitudo) existing between them was known as pietas,—a sentiment akin to filial affection. The designation by lot (sors) was also held to be a token of divine will, and therefore sacred (religio). In betraying his consul, then, Verres was guilty of more than an ordinary breach of trust,—he committed an act of impiety. legatio:Verres was in B.C. 80-79 legatus and acting quaestor (pro quaestore) of Dolabella, whose province was Cilicia. The extortions of the two were practiced in the adjoining regions of Pamphylia, Pisidia, and parts of Asia (i.e. of the Roman province of Asia, the old kingdom of Pergamus, embracing the western part of Asia Minor); totius is a rhetorical exaggeration. scelus . . . quaestorium:Verres treated Dolabella much as he had treated Carbo. Neither of these infamous commanders deserved better treatment; but thi
J. B. Greenough, G. L. Kittredge, Select Orations of Cicero , Allen and Greenough's Edition., chapter 13 (search)
tors possessed the imperium,—i.e. sovereign power, as of a general in the field, somewhat limited, however, in the city by special privileges of Roman citizens. commemorabuntur,shall be mentioned (by me). certis rebus,well-ascertained facts. agentur,made ground of action. inter decem annos,i.e since Sulla's lex judiciaria, transferring the courts to the senatorial order (see note on Rosc. Am., p. 2, l. 1). quinquaginta,i.e. from the law of Caius Gracchus, B.C. 123, to that of Sulla, B.C. 80. ne tenuissima quidem suspicio:one of the exaggerations of the advocate. If the courts were really worse in B.C. 70 than they had been in 90, it was simply because the times were worse. sublata,taken away. populi Romani,etc., i.e. the ability of the people to hold in check the senatorial order by means of the tribunician power suspended by Sulla (see note on p. 43, l. 32). Q. Calidius:praetor B.C. 79; condemned for extortion in Spain. It seems that Calidius, being condemned de repetun
J. B. Greenough, G. L. Kittredge, Select Orations of Cicero, Allen and Greenough's Edition., section 61 (search)
d to, see notes on sects. 28-30, above. privatum, i.e. not a magistrate. a senatorio gradu: no one could legally enter the Senate until after holding the quaestorship, the minimum age for which was thirty at least, and regularly thirty-six, while Pompey was at the time referred to (B.C. 82) only twenty-three. in ea provincia, i.e. Africa. fuit: translate, he showed, etc. (in order to render the abls. of quality, which come in a way foreign to our idiom). victorem, victorious (pred. adj.). exercitum deportavit: this was one of the essential conditions of a triumph. equitem, i.e. not a member of the Senate, having never held a magistracy. triumphare: the honor of a triumph was restricted to commanders who possessed the imperium by virtue of holding a regular magistracy. Until he was elected consul for the year B.C. 70, Pompey had never had the imperium except by special appointment from the Senate; both his triumphs, therefore, B.C. 80 and 71, were contrary to precedent.
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