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A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith) 62 62 Browse Search
J. B. Greenough, G. L. Kittredge, Select Orations of Cicero , Allen and Greenough's Edition. 3 3 Browse Search
Appian, The Foreign Wars (ed. Horace White) 2 2 Browse Search
Appian, The Civil Wars (ed. Horace White) 2 2 Browse Search
Frank Frost Abbott, Commentary on Selected Letters of Cicero 2 2 Browse Search
Samuel Ball Platner, Thomas Ashby, A Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome 1 1 Browse Search
J. B. Greenough, G. L. Kittredge, Select Orations of Cicero , Allen and Greenough's Edition. 1 1 Browse Search
Strabo, Geography 1 1 Browse Search
Pliny the Elder, The Natural History (ed. John Bostock, M.D., F.R.S., H.T. Riley, Esq., B.A.) 1 1 Browse Search
Strabo, Geography (ed. H.C. Hamilton, Esq., W. Falconer, M.A.) 1 1 Browse Search
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A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), (search)
the next year (B. C. 93) he made an expedition against Arabia, and made the Arabs of Gilead and the Moabites tributary. But in B. C. 92, in a campaign against Obedas, the emir of the Arabs of Gaulonitis, he fell into an ambush in the mountains of Gadara; his army was entirely destroyed, and he himself escaped with difficulty. The Pharisees seized the opportunity thus afforded, and broke out into open revolt. At first they were successful, and Alexander was compelled to fly to the mountains (B. C. 88); but two years afterwards he gained two decisive victories. After the second of these, he caused eight hundred of the chief men amongst the rebels to be crucified, and their wives and-children to be butchered before their eyes, while he and his concubines banqueted in sight of the victims. This act of atrocity procured for him the name of " the Thracian." It produced its effect, however, and the rebellion was shortly afterwards suppressed, after the war had lasted six years. During the nex
Anti'stius 6. P. Antistius, tribune of the plebs, B. C. 88, opposed in his tribuneship C. Caesar Strabo, who was a candidate for the consulship without having been praetor. The speech he made upon this occasion brought him into public notice, and afterwards he frequently had important causes entrusted to him, though he was already advanced in years. Cicero speaks favourably of his eloquence. In consequence of the marriage of his daughter to Pompeius Magnus, he supported the party of Sulla, and was put to death by order of young Marius in B. C. 82. His wife Calpurnia killed herself upon the death of her husband. (Cic. Brut. 63, 90, pro Rosc. Amer. 32; Vell. 2.26; Appian, App. BC 1.88; Liv. Epit. 86; Plut. Pomp. 9; Drumann, Gesch. Roms, i. p. 55.)
A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), Apollonius or Apollonius Molon (search)
Apollonius or Apollonius Molon 3. Of ALABANDA, surnamed Molon, likewise a rhetorician, who left his country and went to Rhodes (Strabo xiv. p.655); but he appears to have also taught rhetoric at Rome for some time, as Cicero, who calls him a great pleader in the courts of justice and a great teacher, states that, in B. C. 88, he received instructions from him at Rome. (Cic. Brut. 89.) In B. C. 81, when Sulla was dictator, Apollonius came to Rome as ambassador of the Rhodians, on which occasion Cicero again benefited by his instructions. (Brut. 90.) Four years later, when Cicero returned from Asia, he staid for some time in Rhodes, and had an opportunity of admiring the practical eloquence of Apollonius in the courts as well as his skill in teaching. (Brut. 91.) Apollonius is also called a distinguished writer, but none of his works has come down to us. They appear however to have treated on rhetorical subjects, and on the Homeric poems. (Phoebam. i. p. 98; Porphyr. Quaest. Homeric. p.
the war against the slaves in Sicily, who had a second time revolted under Athenion. Aquillius completely subdued the insurgents, and triumphed on his return to Rome in 100. (Florus, 3.19; Liv. Epit, 69; Diod. xxxvi. Ecl. 1; Cic. in Verr. 3.54, 5.2; Fast. Capitol.) In 98, he was accused by L. Fufius of maladministration in Sicily; he was defended by the orator M. Antonius, and, though there were strong proofs of his guilt, was acquitted on account of his bravery in the war. (Cic. Brut. 52, de Off. 2.14, pro Flacc. 39, de Orat. 2.28, 47.) In B. C. 88, he went into Asia as one of the consular legates to prosecute the war against Mithridates and his allies. He was defeated near Protostachium, and was afterwards delivered up to Mithridates by the inhabitants of Mytilene. Mithridates treated him in the most barbarous manner, and eventually put him to death by pouring molten gold down his throat. (Appian, App. Mith. 7, 19, 21; Liv. Epit. 77; Vell. 2.18; Cic. pro Leg. Man. 5; Athen. 5.213b.)
Arca'thias (*)Arkaqi/as), a son of Mithridates, joined Neoptolemus and Archelaus, the generals of his father, with 10,000 horse, which he brought from the lesser Armenia, at the commencement of the war with the Romans, B. C. 88. He took an active part in the great battle fought near the river Amneius or Amnias (see Strab. xii. p.562) in Paphlagonia, in which Nicomedes, the king of Bithynia, was defeated. Two years afterwards, B. C. 86, he invaded Macedonia with a separate army, and completely conquered the country. He then proceeded to march against Sulla, but died on the way at Tidaeum (Potidaea?) (Appian, App. Mith. 17, 18, 35, 41
Archela'us (*)Arxe/laos), a general of MITHRIDATES, and the greatest that he had. He was a native of Cappadocia, and the first time that his name occurs is in B. C. 88, when he and his brother Neoptolemus had the command against Nicomedes III. of Bithynia, whom they defeated near the river Amnius in Paphlagonia. In the next year he was sent by Mithridates with a large fleet and army into Greece, where he reduced several islands, and after persuading the Athenians to abandon the cause of the Romans, he soon gained for Mithridates nearly the whole of Greece south of Thessaly. In Boeotia, however, he met Bruttius Sura, the legate of Sextius, the governor of Macedonia, with whom he had during three days a hard struggle in the neighbourhood of Chaeroneia, until at last, on the arrival of Lacedaemonian and Achaean auxiliaries for Archelaus, the Roman general withdrew to Peiraeeus, which however was blockaded and taken possession of by Archelaus. In the meantime, Sulla, to whom the command o
Mith. 10.) He was several times expelled from his kingdom by Mithridates, and as often restored by the Romans. He seems to have been driven out of his kingdom immediately after his accession, as we find that he was restored by Sulla in B. C. 92. (Plut. Sull. 5; Liv. Epit. 70; Appian, App. Mith. 57.) He was a second time expelled about B. C. 90, and fled to Rome. He was then restored by M.' Aquillius, about B. C. 89 (Appian, App. Mith. 10, 11; Justin, 38.3), but was expelled a third time in B. C. 88. In this year war was declared between the Romans and Mithridates ; and Ariobarzanes was deprived of his kingdom till the peace in B. C. 84, when he again obtained it from Sulla, and was established in it by Curio. (Plut. Sull. 22, 24; Dio Cass. Fragm. 173, ed. Reim.; Appian, App. Mith. 60.) Ariobarzanes appears to have retained possession of Cappadocia, though frequently harassed by Mithridates, till B. C. 66, when Mithridates seized it after the departure of Lucullus and before the arriva
Brutus 18. M. Junius Brutus, praetor in B. C. 88, was sent with his colleague Servilius by the senate, at the request of Marius, to command Sulla, who was then at Nola, not to advance nearer Rome. (Plut. Sull. 9.) On Sulla's arrival at Rome, Brutus was proscribed with ten other senators. (Appian, App. BC 1.60.) He subsequently served under Cn Papirius Carbo, the consul, B. C. 82, and was sent by him in a fishing-boat to Lilybaeum; but finding himself surrounded by Pompey's fleet, he put an end to his own life, that he might not fall into the hands of his enemies. (Liv. Epit. 89.) Cicero, in a letter to Atticus (9.14), mentions a report, that Caesar intended to revenge the death of M. Brutus and Carbo, and of all those who had been put to death by Sulla with the assistance of Pompey. This M. Junius Brutus is not to be confounded, as he often is, with L. Junius Brutus Damasippus, praetor in 82 [No. 19], whose surname we know from Livy (Liv. Epit. 86) to have been Lucius; nor with M. Ju
s condemned, and the speech which Caesar delivered on this occasion was much admired, and was afterwards closely imitated by his great namesake, the dictator, in the speech which he delivered upon the appointment of an accuser against Dolabella. (Suet. Jul. 55.) He was curule aedile in B. C. 90 in the consulship of his brother, and not in the following year, as some modern writers state; for we are told, that he was aedile in the tribuneship of C. Curio, which we know was in the year 90. In B. C. 88 he became a candidate for the consulship, without having been praetor, and was strongly supported by the aristocracy, and as strongly opposed by the popular party. This contest was, indeed, as Asconius states, one of the immediate causes of the civil war. The tribunes of the plebs, P. Sulpicius and P. Antistius, contended, and with justice, that Caesar could not be elected consul without a violation of the lex Annalis; but since he persevered in spite of their opposition, the tribunes had r
Cethe'gus 7. P. Cornelius Cethegus, a friend of Marius, who being proscribed by Sulla (B. C. 88) fled with the younger Marius into Numidia, but returned next year to Rome with the heads of his party. In 83, however, he went over to Sulla, and was pardoned. (Appian, App. BC 1.60.62,80.) Notwithstanding his notorious bad life and utter want of faith, he retained great power and influence even after Sulla's death; and it was he who joined the consul M. Cotta in procuring the unlimited command of the Mediterranean for a man like himself, M. Antonius Creticus [ANTONIUS, No. 9]; nor did Lucullus disdain to sue Cethegus' concubine to use her interest in his favour, when he was seeking to obtain the command against Mithridates. (Cic. Parad. 5.3; Plut. Luc. 5, 6; comp. Cic. Clu. 31.)
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