ed was of the nature of steel, as yet produced in many countries of Europe, Asia, and Africa by the native metallurgists.
In speaking of ages, no general world-wide area of contemporary progress is intended.
There are tribes yet in the bone age (see axe), others in the bronze.
Some of the bone men have jumped into the iron (which they purchase) because they had no copper, and iron was the first metal with which they became acquainted; such are some of the South Sea Islanders.
Hesiod, 900 B. C., states that iron was discovered after copper and tin, and that those who were ancient, in his day, used bronze.
Lucretius mentions also the gradation:—
The primeval arms were the hands, the nails, and the teeth, Together with stones and branches, the fragments of the forests; Afterwards was found the power of iron and of bronze, But the use of bronze was known before that of iron.
Bronze implements are obtained by casting, and, it is believed, by subsequent hammering while hot. (Se
eliminary tint was given with coccus (kermes). The dye and dyed goods are celebrated in the Hebrew and other ancient scriptures.
This color seems, from its extreme beauty, permanence, and costliness, to have become regal, and the royal taste is for the same down to our day. The color of the velvet in the crown of the Queen of England is a shade of purple; the velvet coronation robes of George IV.
were of that color.
Pliny (A. D. 70) says that the robes of triumph in the time of Homer (900 B. C.) were colored.
Purple habits were given to Gideon by the Israelites from the spoils of the kings of Midian.
Achan secreted a Babylonish garment, and suffered for it. Plutarch says that when Alexander took Susa, the Greeks took from the royal treasury purple stuffs to the value of 5,000 talents (1 talent $860 × 5,000 = $4,300,000), which still retained their beauty, though they had lain there 190 years.
Prussian blue was discovered by Diesbach, at Berlin, 1710; aniline, in 1826, by Unv
was the father of all such as handle the harp and the organ.
His brother Jabal had great stock of cattle, and his half-brother Tubal Cain was an instructor of every artificer in brass and iron.
Quite a distinguished and industrious family.
Agriculture, the mechanics, and the fine arts pursued by the sons of one man, a descendant in the fifth generation of Cain.
The harps of Egypt were numerous and various, having from 4 to 14 strings as long ago as the reign of Amosis, about 1570 B. C., 900 years before Terpander.
The strings were of catgut, and the form of the frame varied according to its purpose.
To be carried or played standing, sitting, or squatting.
One harp discovered in Egypt in 1823 had several remaining strings which responded to a touch, and awoke from a rest of 3,000 years.
a is an Egyptian harp from a painting at Thebes.
b from a painting at Dendera.
c one of the Bruce harpers, two of whom are shown in the original.
One of the harps has 21 strings,
ivory was so plentiful on the borders of Ethiopia that it was used for fences, door-posts, and cattle-stalls.
In regard to its ancient uses, it seems to have been essentially a regal luxury.
All manner of vessels of ivory are enumerated as among the furnishing of opulent Babylon.
Hiram fashioned the great ivory throne of Solomon, and overlaid it with pure gold.
Ivory was freely used in the chairs and couches of Egypt, as the paintings in the tombs yet testify.
Ahab's ivory house, 900 B. C., and the palace of Menelaus, described by Homer, were probably paneled with ivory, or the walls and pillars inlaid therewith.
Ezekiel records that ivory was used to ornament the Phoenician galleys.
Beds inlaid or veneered with ivory were used by those who, as Amos says, are at case in Zion, that lie upon beds of ivory and stretch themselves upon their couches.
Two hunting inscriptions, one of which principally records the elephant hunts of Ptolemy Philadelphus, were discovered and c
-surveying and plotting a principal mode of determining the allotment of taxes.
The revenue was derived from the use of water during the overflow of the Nile, and afterward of that which was stored in reservoirs during high water, — the simplest form of taxation upon property; the eminent domain of water being vested in the sovereign.
The Egyptians, says Eustathius, recorded their marches in maps.
has a representation of the popular idea of the earth in the time of Homer, 900 B. C. It consisted of a strip of land around the Pontus Pelagus, and even the boundaries were not known toward the northwest.
Cimmerian darkness brooded upon the deep which surrounded the land.
Next is the world as known to Hecateus about 500 B. C., say about the time of Daniel.
The borders of the Mediterranean are defined; the Iberi and Celtae are known; the pillars of Hercules on the west and the Caspian on the cast mark the longitudinal extent; back of Asia Minor is a greater Asia, which
he second century of our era, that the Works and days of Hesiod, inscribed on leaden plates, were preserved at the fountain of Helicon in Boeotia down to his time, but were partly obliterated by the effects of wear and time.
Hesiod lived about 900 B. C., but how long the plates had been engraved is another matter.
Pliny mentions sheets of lead and tablets, and refers to their use in the remote past.
The Romans also used ivory tablets named libri eborci or libri elephantini, and Ulpian statstrument.
The Old Testament Scriptures abound in the names of instruments of the harp kind; the lyre, the psaltery, and instruments of 10 strings.
The Egyptian harps had from 4 to 14 strings as long ago as Amosis, about 1570 B. C., 900 years before Terpander.
The form of the harp-frame, as we have seen, arose from the mode of varying the tone by giving different lengths to the strings, which were of catgut or tendons; to this was added another variation by the thickness of st