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A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith) 22 22 Browse Search
Appian, The Foreign Wars (ed. Horace White) 1 1 Browse Search
Pliny the Elder, The Natural History (ed. John Bostock, M.D., F.R.S., H.T. Riley, Esq., B.A.) 1 1 Browse Search
Samuel Ball Platner, Thomas Ashby, A Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome 1 1 Browse Search
M. Tullius Cicero, De Officiis: index (ed. Walter Miller) 1 1 Browse Search
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of election was transferred from the priestly colleges to the people. (Dict. of Ant. pp. 773, b. 774, a.) The people afterwards elected him Pontifex Maximus out of gratitude. (Liv. Epit. 67; Cic. pro Deiot. 11; V. Max. 6.5.5.) He prosecuted in his tribunate and afterwards several of his private enemies, as Aemilius Scaurus and Junius Silanus. (Val. Max. l.c. ; Dio Cass. Fr. 100; Cic. Div. in Caecil. 20, Verr. 2.47, Cornel. 2, pro Scaur. 1.) He was consul B. C. 96 with C. Cassius, and censor B. C. 92, with Licinius Crassus, the orator. In his censorship he and his colleague shut up the schools of the Latin rhetoricians (Cic. de Orat. 3.24; Gel. 15.11), but this was the only thing in which they acted in concert. Their censorship was long celebrated for their disputes. Domitius was of a violent temper, and was moreover in favour of the ancient simplicity of living, while Crassus loved luxury and encouraged art. Among the many sayings recorded of both, we are told that Crassus observed, "
A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), (search)
s. The result of these undertakings, and his having attached himself to the party of the Sadducees, drew upon him the hatred of the Pharisees, who were by far the more numerous party. He was attacked by the people in B. C. 94, while officiating as high-priest at the feast of Tabernacles; but the insurrection was put down, and six thousand of the insurgents slain. In the next year (B. C. 93) he made an expedition against Arabia, and made the Arabs of Gilead and the Moabites tributary. But in B. C. 92, in a campaign against Obedas, the emir of the Arabs of Gaulonitis, he fell into an ambush in the mountains of Gadara; his army was entirely destroyed, and he himself escaped with difficulty. The Pharisees seized the opportunity thus afforded, and broke out into open revolt. At first they were successful, and Alexander was compelled to fly to the mountains (B. C. 88); but two years afterwards he gained two decisive victories. After the second of these, he caused eight hundred of the chief m
Api'cius Ancient writers distinguish three Romans bearing this name, all of them indebted for celebrity to the same cause, their devotion to gluttony. Ancient authors about food under the name Apicius Api'cius 1. The first of these in chronological order, is said to have been instrumental in procuring the condemnation of Rutilius Rufus, who went into exile in the year B. C. 92. According to Posidonius, in the 49th book of his history, he transcended all men in luxury. (Athen iv. p. 168d.; compare Posidonii Reliquiae, ed. Bake.) Api'cius 2. The second and most renowned, M. Gabius Apicius, flourished under Tiberius, and many anecdotes have been preserved of the inventive genius, the skill and the prodigality which he displayed in discovering and creating new sources of culinary delight, arranging new combinations, and ransacking every quarter of the globe and every kingdom of nature for new objects to stimulate and gratify his appetite. At last, after having squandered upwards o
riptions and coins seem to prove that there were three. I. Surnamed Philoromaeus (*Filorw/maios) on coins (B. C. 93-63), was elected king by the Cappadocians, under the direction of the Romans, about B. C. 93. (Justin, 38.2; Strab. xii. p.540; Appian, App. Mith. 10.) He was several times expelled from his kingdom by Mithridates, and as often restored by the Romans. He seems to have been driven out of his kingdom immediately after his accession, as we find that he was restored by Sulla in B. C. 92. (Plut. Sull. 5; Liv. Epit. 70; Appian, App. Mith. 57.) He was a second time expelled about B. C. 90, and fled to Rome. He was then restored by M.' Aquillius, about B. C. 89 (Appian, App. Mith. 10, 11; Justin, 38.3), but was expelled a third time in B. C. 88. In this year war was declared between the Romans and Mithridates ; and Ariobarzanes was deprived of his kingdom till the peace in B. C. 84, when he again obtained it from Sulla, and was established in it by Curio. (Plut. Sull. 22, 24;
A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), or Mithridates II. (search)
Arsaces Ix. or Mithridates II. MITHRIDATES II., the son of the preceding, prosecuted many wars with success, and added many nations to the Parthian empire, whence he obtained the surname of Great. He defeated the Scythians in several battles, and also carried on war against Artavasdes, king of Armenia. It was in his reign that the Romans first had any official communication with Parthia. Mithridates sent an ambassador, Orobazus, to Sulla, who had come into Asia B. C. 92, in order to restore Ariobarzanes I. to Cappadocia, and requested alliance with the Romans, which seems to have been granted. (Justin, 42.2; Plut. Salla, 5.) Justin (42.4) has confounded this king with Mithridates III., i. e. Arsaces XIII.
Bago'as 3. A general of Tigranes or Mithridates, who together with Mithraus expelled Ariobarzanes from Cappadocia in B. C. 92. (Appian, App. Mith. 10; comp. Justin, 38.3.) The name Bagoas frequently occurs in Persian history. According to Pliny (Plin. Nat. 13.9), it was the Persian word for an eunuch; and it is sometimes used by Latin writers as synonymous with an eunuch. (Comp. Quint. Inst. 5.12; Ov. Am. 2.2. 1.)
Carbo 7. Cn. Papirius Cn. F. C. N. CARBO, a son of No. 3 and cousin of No. 6, occurs in history for the first time in B. C. 92, when the consul Appius Claudius Pulcher made a report to the senate about his seditious proceedings. (Cic. De Legg. 3.19.) He was one of the leaders of the Marian party, and in B. C. 87, when C. Marius returned from Africa, he commanded one of the four armies with which Rome was blockaded. In B. C. 86, when L. Valerius Flaccus, the successor of Marius in his seventh consulship, was killed in Asia, Carbo was chosen by Cinna for his colleague for B. C. 85. These two consuls, who felt alarmed at the reports of Sulla's return, sent persons into all parts of Italy to raise money, soldiers, and provisions, for the anticipated war, and they endeavoured to strengthen their party, especially by the new citizens, whose rights, they said, were in danger, and on whose behalf they pretended to exert themselves. The fleet also was restored to guard the coasts of Italy, and
instructions of foreign professors delivered in a foreign tongue; for the Latin rhetoricians were long regarded, and perhaps justly, as ignorant pretenders, who brought such discredit on the study by their presumptuous quackery, that so late as B. C. 92, L. Crassus, who was not likely to be an unjust or illiberal judge in such matters, when censor was desirous of expelling the whole crew from the city. Thus Cicero had the honour of opening up to the masses of his countrymen a new field of inquipponent of the Gracchi, well skilled in law and logic, but no orator; P. Rutilius Rufus, consul B. C. 105, the most worthy citizen, according to Velleius, not merely of his own day, but of all time, who having been condemned in a criminal trial (B. C. 92), although innocent, by a conspiracy among the equites, retired to Smyrna, where he passed the remainder of his life in honourable exile; Q. Mucius Scaevola, the augur, consul B. C. 117, the first preceptor of Cicero in jurisprudence; and lastly
Cosco'nius 7. COSCONIUS, a writer of Epigrams in the time of Martial, attacked the latter on account of the length of his epigrams and their lascivious nature. He is severely handled in two epigrams of Martial. (2.77, 3.69; comp. Weichert, Poetarum Latinorum Reliquiae, p. 249, &c.) Varro speaks (L. L. 6.36, 89, ed. Müller) of a Cosconius who wrote a grammatical work and another on "Actiones," but it is uncertain who he was. It is also doubtful to which of the Cosconii the following coin refers. It contains on the obverse the head of Pallas, with L. Cosc. M. F., and on the reverse Mars driving a chariot, with L. LIC. CN. DOM. It is therefore supposed that this Cosconius was a triumvir of the mint at the time that L. Licinius and Cn. Domitius held one of the higher magistracies; and as we find that they were censors in B. C. 92, the coin is referred to that year. (Eckhel. v. p. 196.)
A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), (search)
mined to exercise his authority by attacking the Parthians. This was a stretch and perversion of the law, for the Parthians were not expressly named in the lex Trebonia, and the Senate, who constitutionally were the proper arbiters of peace and war, refused to sanction hostilities by their decree. Indeed there was not the slightest pretext for hostilities, and nothing could be more flagrantly unjust than the determination of Crassus. It was in express violation of treaties, for in the year B. C. 92, Sulla had concluded a treaty of peace with the Parthians, and the treaty had been renewed by Pompey with their king Phraates. The Romans were not very scrupulous in their career of conquest, and they often fought from motives of gain or ambition, but their ostensible reasons generally bore some show of plausibility, and a total disregard of form was offensive to a people who were accustomed in their international dealings to observe certain legal and religious technicalities. It was not su
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