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Plato, Republic, Book 2, section 375b (search)
anything else? Have you never observed what an irresistible and invincible thing is spirit,Anger (or the heart's desire?) buys its will at the price of life, as Heracleitus says (fr. 105 Bywater). Cf. Aristotle Eth. Nic. 1105 a 9, 1116 b 23. the presence of which makes every soul in the face of everything fearless and unconquerable?” “I have.” “The physical qualities of the guardian, then, are obvious.” “Yes.” “And also those of his soul, namely that he must be of high spirit.” “Yes, this too.” “How then, Glaucon,” said I, “will they escape being savage to one anotherCf. Spencer, Psychology 511: “Men cannot be kept unsympathetic towards external enemies without
Plato, Republic, Book 4, section 430b (search)
to accomplish this, and pain and fear and desire more sure than any lye. This power in the soul, then, this unfailing conservation of right and lawful beliefCf. Protagoras 360 C-D, Laws 632 C, Aristotle Eth. Nic. 1116 b 24. Strictly speaking, Plato would recognize four grades, (1) philosophic bravery, (2) the bravery of the E)PI/KOUROI here defined, (3) casual civic bravery in ordinary states, (4) animal instinct, which hardly deserves the name. Cf. Laches 196 E, Mill, Nature, p. 47 “Consistent courage is always the effect of cultivation,” etc., Unity of Plato's Thought, nn. 46 and 77. about things to be and not to be feared is what I call and would assume to be courage, unless you have somethin
Plato, Republic, Book 4, section 430c (search)
with the reservationGE marks a reservation as 415 ESTRATIWTIKA/S GE, Politicus 30 E, Laws 710 ATH\N DHMW/DH GE. Plotinus, unlike some modern commentators, perceived this. Cf. Enn. i. 2. 3. In Phaedo 82 APOLITIKH/N is used disparagingly of ordinary bourgeois virtue. In Xenophon Rep. Lac. 10. 7 and Aristotle Eth. NIc. iii. 8. 1 (1116 a 17) there is no disparagement. The word is often used of citizen soldiery as opposed to professional mercenaries. that it is the courage of a citizen. Some other time,This dismissal of the subject is sometimes fancifully taken as a promise of the Laches. Cf. Unity of Plato's Thought, nn. 77 and 603. if it please you, we will discuss it more fully. At presen