mor of pieces of horn or horse-hoofs fastened to a linen doublet.
Goliath was armed with a coat of mail (1 Samuel xvii). It is frequently spoken of by Homer.
Demetrius, son of Antigonus, had a coat of mail made of Cyprian adamant (perhaps steel). Cyprus was famous for its armor.
The ancient Scythians had armor composed of horse's hoofs curiously strong and jointed together.
Hengist the Saxon had scale armor A. D. 449, and King John of England possessed a hauberk of rings set edgewise, 1200.
The cavalry of Henry III.
had coats of mail.
had a steel cuirass, 1500.
Since the introduction of fire-arms the use of armor has been gradually discontinued, and it is now confined to the heavy cavalry or cuirassiers of European armies.
As worn at present, it generally consists of a helmet of brass strengthened with steel, and a cuirass composed of a front piece, or breast-plate, and a back piece strongly laced or buckled together.
The success of the French cuirassiers in t
and extort our admiration, are those of Merida and Alcantara, in Spain.
The former is over the Guadiana, 3,900 feet long, and has 64 arches.
The latter is over the Tagus, 670 Spanish feet long, 6 arches; road-bed 205 feet above the river.
The bridges of London are celebrated in history, especially that portion of history in which we who speak English are most interested.
A wooden bridge existed over the Thames in A. D. 978. One was built of wood in 1014; one by Peter of Colechurch, 1176-1200, with houses on each side connected by arches of timber which crossed the street.
This was burned in July, 1212, and 3,000 persons perished.
The buildings being on fire at the Surry end, a great crowd rushed to see the fire, and the wind blew the burning shingles to the north end, lighting the buildings at the Middlesex side of the river.
Between fire and water the loss of life was dreadful.
The bridge was restored in 1300; again partially burned in 1471, 1632, and 1725.
The houses were
d of the line are adjusted to traverse their respective carriages in equal or nearly equal times.
The paper intended for receiving permanent printing is prepared by being saturated in a solution of nitrate of manganese, which, under the action of the current, leaves a light brown mark.
Fugitive printing, as for the press, is done on paper prepared with iodide of potassium, which affords at first an iodine color, but is liable to fade.
It is said that a speed of 300 in permanent, and of 1200 words in fugitive, printing per minute is attainable by this apparatus.
See electro-magnetic telegraph ; autographic telegraph.
An instrument used for recording time and occurrences in the instant and order of their time, as in noting transits in observatories.
A paper marked for seconds is placed on the surface of a revolving drum, over which is a stylus operated by electro-magnetic action when the circuit is closed by the telegraph key in the hand of the op
blowing up his enemies.
He stuffed — so says the legend — copper figures with explosive and combustible materials which were emitted at the mouths and nostrils of the effigies, making great havoc.
The Danish historian, Saxo Grammaticus, A. D. 1200, gives an account of a similar contrivance, used by a Gothic king.
The devices of Archimedes, who defended Syracuse from the Romans, 212 B. C., were mechanical or optical, and do not seem to have involved chemical compounds.
put together, so as to be carried on mules' backs in a rugged and mountainous country.
Field-carriages include those which are adapted to accompany the movements of troops during an engagement, and carrying a class of guns weighing from 800 to 1200 pounds, as the 12-pounder smoothbore and lighter rifled cannon.
These carriages are known as stocktrail pattern, from having a single piece, which serves as the trail, inserted between the two cheeks on which the trunnions rest.
ove consumes the gas in a separate chamber from that containing the pipes to be heated; air to support combustion is allowed to enter, and the heated fumes escape through a series of narrow slots into an air-tight chamber having a damper on the top and containing a series of vertical reverting pipes through which passes the blast to be heated.
As the highly heated fumes will not again ignite without a fresh supply of oxygen, the cast-iron blast-pipes remain uninjured under a heat of 1100° or 1200°.
An auxiliary fireplace for burning coal is shown attached to the hot-blast stove.
From this fireplace a flue conducts the flame, smoke, and gases from the blast-furnace into the chamber where the combustion is completed.
Attached to the end of this fireplace, and connected with flues at the furnacetop, is a branch gas-pipe with a small steam-jet placed near its orifice to create a partial vacuum.
This draws the gases down from the furnace-top and forces them into the stoves, where th
educed from the data that the limit of the hight of the atmosphere is about 58 1/2 miles.
Huyghens states that Drebell had a microscope in 1621, and that he was the reputed inventor of it; the invention is also claimed by Fontana, a Neapolitan, in 1618.
Burrell asserts that the Jansens, father and son, made the first microscope and presented it to Prince Maurice and Archduke Albert of Austria.
The invention was, however, clearly anticipated by Roger Bacon.
Spectacles were in use A. D. 1200.
The double microscope was invented by Farncelli in 1624.
Dr. Hooke (1635 – 1702) made microscopes of a sphere of glass, from 1/20 to 1/50 of an inch in diameter.
Having made and polished his lens, he placed it against a small hole in a thin piece of metal and fixed it with wax.
Leuwenhoeck's microscopes, 26 in number, which he presented to the Royal Society, have each a doubleconvex lens.
Their powers were from 40 to 160.
Comes Mr. Reeve, with a microscope and a scotoscope.
tity during an ordinary stage.
The rate of flow during inundation is 6 feet per second at Ea Sinout, about the middle of Egypt; during low water the rate of flow is from 1 1/3 to 2 knots per hour.
The immediate banks of the river are seldom covered, and serve as highways.
The general breadth of the river is about 1/3 of a mile.
It receives no tributaries after leaving Abyssinia, and consequently does not increase in size.
A low Nile causes famine.
We read of such in Genesis; one A. D. 1200, cited in Abdollatiph's History of Egypt; two in 1784 – 85, mentioned by Volney.
The latter was very destructive, and was caused by light rainfall in Ethiopia.
Multitudes sought food in Palestine and Syria.
（Nautical.) A block whose shell is spindle-shaped, resembling one of a set of nine-pins.
Its ends are swiveled in an upper and lower bar, so that the plane of the sheave may be presented in any direction.
It acts as a fair-leader under the crosspieces of the bit
ade from rags, is yet extant.
After this period the notices of paper and of paper-making become frequent.
Linen paper is found in documents of 1241 (edict of Emperor Fred. II.) and 1300.
The Arabian physician Abdollatiph, who visited Egypt in 1200, says that the mummy-cloths (linen) were habitually used to make wrapping-paper for the shop-keepers.
The linen paper of the thirteenth century had the waterlines and water-mark.
One specimen had a tower.
The earliest manuscript on linen papeThese are only available up to temperatures approaching the fusing points of those metals.
Gauntlett's pyrometer has a stem composed of tubes of refractory clay, inclosed in an iron stem 3 feet long This is employed for temperatures of 1000° to 1200° Fah. A brass stem 4 feet long, inclosing an iron rod, is used for temperatures below 800° Fah. In either, the degree of heat is indicated by the difference of the expansions of the two materials, the rate of which is known.
Gauntlett's can only
Bridge.Deck and side lights.
Steam corvette of 22 guns.
1200 tons burden, 300 horse-power.
Eecessitating, after a time, the driving of other piles outside these, until the substructure frequently, as in the case of Old London Bridge, seriously obstructed the water-way and impeded navigation.
This was built by Peter of Colechurch, 1176-1200, with houses on each side, connected by arches of timber, which crossed the roadway.
This was burned in July, 1212, and 3,000 persons perished.
It was restored in 1300; again partially burned in 1471, 1632, and 1725.
The houses were pulled down