ounds, and was considered as remarkably large at that time.
During the thirteenth century much larger bells began to be cast.
The Jacqueline, at Paris, cast in 1300, weighed 15,000 pounds; one cast at Paris in 1472 weighed 15,000 pounds; and the bell of Rouen, cast in 1501, weighed over 36,000 pounds.
One of the pieces in mles to the north end, lighting the buildings at the Middlesex side of the river.
Between fire and water the loss of life was dreadful.
The bridge was restored in 1300; again partially burned in 1471, 1632, and 1725.
The houses were pulled down in 1756.
At what time stone arches were substituted for wooden spans does not appear whose business is upon the waters, remained long after the other arches had been swept away by the storms of centuries.
Benezet's tomb was in the crypt.
About 1300, Issim, the Moorish king of Granada, erected a fine bridge at Cordova, across the Guadalquiver.
Perronet mentions a stone bridge of three arches, one of which h
Alfred the Great used a graduated wax candle as a time-keeper, and placed it in a lantern to equalize its consumption by preventing flaring.
Splinters of wood saturated with animal fat were used in England by the poor, A. D. 1300.
The pith of swamp-rush (Juncus effusus) was subsequently used for a wick, and answered the purpose tolerably, though it conducted the grease slowly, gave a very moderate light, and was easily extinguished by drafts.
It is still used there, and they died by poison, both of them.
To follow up the recital: —
A. D. 1288, a clock was placed in the old palace yard, London, and remained till the reign of Queen Elizabeth.
A. D. 1292, a clock was placed in Canterbury Cathedral.
A. D. 1300, Dante refers to a clock which struck the hours.
Chaucer refers to the horologe.
No certain mention is made, up to this time, of the means of regulating the speed of the machine, and that the pendulum had not been adopted to any extent, is cer
ingness of it at pleasure, by an oyled paper.
This I bought of him, giveing him a crowne for it; and so, well satisfied, he went away. — Ibid., Oct. 5, 1664.
Aquatint engraving invented by St. Non of France, 1662.
Engraving in steel introduced into England by Perkins of Philadelphia, 1819.
The earliest application of the wood-engraver's art in Europe was in cutting blocks for playingcards.
The French writers ascribe it to the time of Charles V., but the Germans show cards of the date 1300.
The Italians again claim that it originated in Ravenna, about 1285.
An Italian pamphlet of the year 1299 speaks of cards as a gambling game, but these may have been drawn by the pen and colored by hand.
In the year 1441 the Venetian government forbade the importation of stamped playing-cards as being injurious to their handicraft manufacture.
Ugo di Carpi introduced the method of printing in colors or tints by separate successive blocks.
Engraving on wood assumed the character of an art
Adsiger in a Latin essay in 1269, in which the south pole is said to vary a little to the west; and by Raymond Lully of Majorca, in his Fenix de las Maravillas del Orbe, published in 1286.
A passage in the Spanish Leyes de las Partidas of the middle of the thirteenth century runs as follows: The needle which guides the mariner in the dark night, and shows him how to direct his course both in good and bad weather, is the intermediary between the loadstone and the North Star.
Dante, about 1300, refers to the needle which points to the star.
Marco Polo, the great traveler, was in the service of Kublai Khan, the conqueror of China, from 1274 to 1291, and was concerned in the introduction of the compass from China to Europe direct.
It had previously arrived by the good old channel, India and Arabia; but Marco Polo did not know that, and his services can hardly be exaggerated.
The Arabs sailed by the compass during the Khalifate of Cordova, which lasted till A. D. 1237, when it
ville to Louis X. of France, dated 1315, and written on paper made from rags, is yet extant.
After this period the notices of paper and of paper-making become frequent.
Linen paper is found in documents of 1241 (edict of Emperor Fred. II.) and 1300.
The Arabian physician Abdollatiph, who visited Egypt in 1200, says that the mummy-cloths (linen) were habitually used to make wrapping-paper for the shop-keepers.
The linen paper of the thirteenth century had the waterlines and water-mark.
Oneced blockprinting into Europe, and wood-engraving and printing had long been in use in the time of Charles V., when playing-cards were thus made.
The printing from blocks is said to have been practiced at Ravenna in 1289, and among the Germans in 1300.
In 1441 it had attained the dignity of special legislation; the Venetian card-makers, taking their impressions by means of a burnisher, obtained protection against the introduction of stamped cards.
The most important of the block-books was
ers were founded on piles, the spaces between which were filled in with stone, necessitating, after a time, the driving of other piles outside these, until the substructure frequently, as in the case of Old London Bridge, seriously obstructed the water-way and impeded navigation.
This was built by Peter of Colechurch, 1176-1200, with houses on each side, connected by arches of timber, which crossed the roadway.
This was burned in July, 1212, and 3,000 persons perished.
It was restored in 1300; again partially burned in 1471, 1632, and 1725.
The houses were pulled down in 1756, and finally the bridge itself, to make way for New London Bridge, constructed by the Rennies, opened in 1831.
On this occasion the original piles, mostly of elm, were found to be but partially decayed, some portions being even used for making articles of utility or curiosity.
The new bridge cost £ 506,000. The daily travel in 1859 was about 20,498 vehicles, carrying 60,836 persons, and 107,074 foot-passen
rom which it is purified by liquation; the pure tin, fusing more readily, oozes out and leaves a more infusible alloy behind.
The glassmak-er's name for bismuth.
（Pottery.) An opaque glaze, or enamel, having oxide of tin as a basis, used upon majolica ware and other fine pottery.
Tin-glazes are found upon ancient Egyptian and Persian articles.
The process appears to have been introduced into Europe by the Saracens; tin-glazed tiles manufactured about 1300 A. D. being found in the Alhambra.
They also made very beautiful wares, known as Hispano-Moresque, recognizable by the peculiar metallic luster of their surface.
These were imitated by the Italians in the well-known majolica ware.
The earlier specimens of this have a lead glaze, and are termed half or mezza majolica.
Toward the close of the fifteenth century the Italians became possessed of the secret of making tinglazes, and soon surpassed the work of their predecessors the Moors.