The Greeks made them in various forms; skull-caps, conical, truncated.
narrow or broad brimmed (petasus). The Phrygian bonnet was an elevated cap without a brim, the apex turned over in front.
This form is very old, and indicates an inhabitant of Asia Minor.
It is known now as the cap of liberty.
In Rome, the ceremony of manumission of a slave, the head was shaved and a cap presented as an emblem of freedom.
An ancient figure of Liberty, of the time of Antoninus Pius, A. D. 145, holds the cap in the right hand.
We even find them with brim and no crown.
Tied before or behind, — we thought this was quite modern.
A broad-brimmed hat is shown in the sculptures of Karnak.
Herodotus refers to the soft hats of the Persians.
They wore round-top caps without peaks, somewhat resembling the modern fez. Hats encircled with plumes were the head-dress of the Lycian contingent in the army of Xerxes.
Herodotus said that the skulls of the bareheaded Egyptians were so bak
tians, and taught by them to Pythagoras.
The theory did not flourish in Greece.
Plato mentions it. A few scholars, like Nicolas (probably of Laodicea, fourth century A. D.), entertained it during the vast intervening period, and it was eventually revived by Copernicus.
When the Spaniards conquered Peru, they found the natives in possession of the true theory, considering the sun the center of our system.
The Chinese annals state that Tsi-ang-nung, in the reign of Shu-en-ti (126 – 145 A. D.), made an orrery to represent the apparent motion of the heavenly bodies round the earth, the instrument being kept in motion by the dropping of water from a clepsydra.
There is a reference also to a similar instrument in the third century.
A planetarium is described in a letter from Angelo Politiano to his friend Francesco Casa, as seen by the former at Florence in the fifteenth century.
The inventor was one Lorenzo of Florence, and the apparatus was constructed to illustrate the Pto