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A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith) 6 6 Browse Search
Knight's Mechanical Encyclopedia (ed. Knight) 3 3 Browse Search
Plato, Republic 1 1 Browse Search
Strabo, Geography (ed. H.C. Hamilton, Esq., W. Falconer, M.A.) 1 1 Browse Search
Baron de Jomini, Summary of the Art of War, or a New Analytical Compend of the Principle Combinations of Strategy, of Grand Tactics and of Military Policy. (ed. Major O. F. Winship , Assistant Adjutant General , U. S. A., Lieut. E. E. McLean , 1st Infantry, U. S. A.) 1 1 Browse Search
H. Wager Halleck , A. M. , Lieut. of Engineers, U. S. Army ., Elements of Military Art and Science; or, Course of Instruction in Strategy, Fortification, Tactis of Battles &c., Embracing the Duties of Staff, Infantry, Cavalry, Artillery and Engineers. Adapted to the Use of Volunteers and Militia. 1 1 Browse Search
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Plato, Republic, Book 10, section 607a (search)
we must loveFor the ME/N Cf. Symp. 180 E, Herod. vii. 102. and salute them as doing the best they can,The condescending tone is that of Euthydem. 306 C-D. and concede to them that Homer is the most poeticAristotle, Poet. 1453 a 29, says that Euripides is TRAGIKW/TATOS of poets. of poets and the first of tragedians,Cf. 605 C, 595 B-C. but we must know the truth, that we can admit no poetry into our city save only hymns to the gods and the praises of good men.Cf. Laws 801 D-E, 829 C-D, 397 C-D, 459 E, 468 D, Friedländer, Platon, i. p. 142, and my review of Pater, Plato and Platonism, in The Dial, 14 (1893) p. 211. For if you grant admission to the honeyed museCf. Laws 802 CTH=S GLUKEI/AS *MOU/SHS. See Finsler
Strabo, Geography (ed. H.C. Hamilton, Esq., W. Falconer, M.A.), BOOK VII., CHAPTER VI. (search)
of the opposite side, which afforded such great resources of wealth, and chose the barren coast. We have continued our description to Byzantium, because this celebrated city,The ancient Byzantium, there are grounds for believing, was marked by the present walls of the Seraglio. The enlarged city was founded by the emperor Constantine, A. D. 328, who gave it his name, and made it the rival of Rome itself. It was taken from the Greeks in 1204, by the Venetians under Dandolo; retaken by the Greeks in 1261 under the emperor Michael Palæologus, and conquered by the Turks in 1453. The crescent found on some of the ancient Byzantine coins was adopted as a symbol by the Turks. by its proximity to the mouth of the Euxine Sea, forms a better-known and more remarkable termination of an account of the coast from the Danube than any other. Above Byzantium is the nation of the Asti, in whose territory is the city Calybe, which Philip the son of Amyntas made a settlement for criminals.
A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), or Constanti'nus Dragases (search)
Constanti'nus Xiii. Palaeo'logus or Constanti'nus Dragases surnamed DRAGASES (o( *Palaio/logos o( draga/shs), the last emperor of the East, A. D. 1448-1453, was the fourth son of the emperor Manuel II. Palaeologus. He was born in A. D. 1394, and obtained the throne after the death of his elder brother, the emperor John VII., in 1448. He first married Theodora, daughter of Leonardo, count of Tocco, a lord in the Peloponnesus, and, after her death, Catharina, daughter of Notaras Palaeologus Catelusius, prince of Lesbos, by neither of whom he left issue. Previously to his accession, Constantine was despot or lord of a small remnant of the Byzantine empire in the Chersonnesus Taurica, and during the reign of his brother John he was invested with the principality of, or more correctly a principality in, the Pcioponnesus, which he bravely defended against the Turks. After the death of John, the throne was claimed by his surviving brothers, Demetrius, the eldest, Constantine, and Thomas. A
A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), Geor'gius SYRUS (search)
s sent by the emperor Justinian II., with a few ships and 300 soldiers, against the town of Chersonae, in the Chersonnesus Taurica, the inhabitants of which were in a state of insurrection. George, with his party, was admitted into the town, and there he was killed by the townsmen, with Joannes, one of his chief officers, and the rest of his troops taken prisoners, A. D. 711. (Theophan. Chronog. vol. i. p. 580, ed. Bonn.) Beside personages belonging to the Byzantine empire, there were many Georges in the states which were formed out of it during its decay, or at its fall. The name occurs in the notices of the Servian, or Bulgarian, or Albanian provinces and chieftains. The most eminent was George Castriota, better known by the epithet Scanderbeg, who lived about the time of the filal capture of Constantinople (A. D. 1453). Among the Comneni of Trebizond [COMNENUS] there was one emperor George (A. D. 1266 to 1280), and there were several Georges members of the imperial family. [J.C.M]
A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), Geo'rgius TRAPEZUNTIUS (search)
lated form. Having lost the favour of Nicholas, who was alienated from him, as George himself states, because he refused to allow his versions of certain Greek philosophers and fathers to appear under the names of others, and perhaps also by the intrigues of his rivals, lie went to Naples, to the court of Alfonso the Magnanimous, who gave him a respectable salary; but he was, after a time, reconciled to the pope by the friendly offices of Franciscus Philelphus, and returned to Rome about A. D. 1453. In A. D. 1465 he visited his native island, and from thence went to Constantinople. On his return by sea from Constantinople to Rome, he was in imminent danger of shipwreck, and, in his peril, he besought the aid of the martyr, Andreas of Chios, who had a few months before suffered martyrdom at Constantinople; and he made a vow that if he escaped and came safely to his destination, he would write in Latin the narrative of his martyrdom. He fulfilled his vow about two years afterwards, a
A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), Joannes ARGYROPULUS (search)
Joannes ARGYROPULUS 17. ARGYROPULUS (*)Arguropou=los), one of the learned Greeks whose flight into Western Europe contributed so powerfully to the revival of learning. Joannes Argyropulus (or Argyropylus, or Argyropolus, or Argyropilus, or Argyrophilus, for the name is variously written) was born at Constantinople of a noble family, and was a presbyter of that city, on the capture of which (A. D. 1453) he is said by Fabricius and Cave to have fled into Italy; but there is every reason to believe that his removal was antecedent to that event. Nicolaus Comnenus Papadopoli (Hist. Gymnas. Patavini) states that he was twice in Italy; that he was sent the first time when above forty years old, by Cardinal Bessarion, and studied Latin at Padua, and that his second removal was after the capture of Constantinople. What truth there is in this statement it is difficult to say : he was at least twice in Italy, probably three, and perhaps even four times ; but that he was forty years of age at his
A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), (search)
the name of Manuel, uncle and nephew; the uncle, a native of Crete, who lived in the time of the emperor Andronicus Palaeologus the Elder, about A. D. 1392; the nephew, a native of Constantinople, who, on the capture of that city by the Turks, A. D. 1453, fled into Italy. Of his fortunes, connections, or place of residence in that country, nothing appears to have been known, nor do we find any record or notice of his death. (Comp. Walder. Praef. ad Mosclopinli Grammat. Artis Method., A. D. 1540author of the Quaestiones, whether he was the uncle or the nephew, lived in the time of the elder Andronicus, who reigned from A. D. 1282 to 1328, neither of the Moschopuli could have lived so late as the capture of Constantinople by the Turks (A. D. 1453), so that the story of the nephew's flight into Italy, consequent on that event, must be rejected. Hody's identification of the tutor of Joannes Picus with the younger Moschopulus must, of course, be rejected also: it appears indeed never to ha
Baron de Jomini, Summary of the Art of War, or a New Analytical Compend of the Principle Combinations of Strategy, of Grand Tactics and of Military Policy. (ed. Major O. F. Winship , Assistant Adjutant General , U. S. A., Lieut. E. E. McLean , 1st Infantry, U. S. A.), Sketch of the principal maritime expeditions. (search)
s proposition. This effort was the last; the christians, abandoned in Syria, were there destroyed in the memorable attacks of Tripoli and Ptolemais; some remnants of the religious orders took refuge at Cyprus, and established themselves at Rhodes. The Musselmans passed in their turn the Dardanelles at Gallipoli, 1355, and seized successively the European Provinces of the Eastern Empire, against which the Latins themselves had struck the last blow. Mahomet II, besieging Constantinople, (1453,) caused, it is said, his fleet to pass by land, in order to introduce it into the canal, and to close the port; it is even said that it was considerable enough to carry twenty thousand choice infantry. Reinforced after the taking of this capital, by all the means of the Greek navy, Mahomet placed, in a little time, his empire in the first rank of maritime powers. He ordered attacks against Rhodes, and even against Otranto, whilst he goes to Hungary in search of a rival more worthy of him,
H. Wager Halleck , A. M. , Lieut. of Engineers, U. S. Army ., Elements of Military Art and Science; or, Course of Instruction in Strategy, Fortification, Tactis of Battles &c., Embracing the Duties of Staff, Infantry, Cavalry, Artillery and Engineers. Adapted to the Use of Volunteers and Militia., Chapter 11: army organization.—Artillery.—Its history and organization, with a brief Notice of the different kinds of Ordnance, the Manufacture of Projectiles, &c. (search)
t, and burst on the second discharge. The famous culverin of Bolduc was said to carry a ball from that city to Bommel. The culverin of Nancy, made in 1598, was more than twenty-three feet in length. There is now an ancient cannon in the arsenal at Metz of about this length, which carries a ball of one hundred and forty pounds. Cannon balls were found at Paris as late as 1712, weighing near two hundred pounds, and from twelve to sixteen inches in diameter. At the siege of Constantinople in 1453, there was a famous metallic bombard which threw stone balls of an incredible size; at the siege of Bourges in 1412, a cannon was used which, it was said, threw stone balls of the size of mill-stones. The Gantois, under Arteville, made a bombard fifty feet in length, whose report was heard at a distance of ten leagues! The first cannon were made of wood, and covered with sheet-iron, or embraced by iron rings: longitudinal bars of iron were afterwards substituted for the wooden form. Towa
of Alexis Comnenus used Greekfire against the Pisans. His ships had siphos fore and aft, in form of syringes, which squirted the inflamed matters. It is believed that the ancient Byzantium was marked by the present walls of the Seraglio. Con- stantine enlarged it A. D. 328, gave it its name, and made it the rival of Rome. It was taken from the Greeks, in 1204, by the Venetians under Dandolo; retaken by the Greeks, in 1261, under the Emperor Michael Palaeologus; captured by the Turks in 1453. An old recipe for Greek-fire is thus given: — Aspaltum, nepta, dragantum, pix quoque Graeca, Sulphur, vernicis, de perolio quoque vitro. Mercurii, sal gemmae Graeci dicitur ignis. Another reads as follows: Take of pulverized resin, sulphur, and pitch equal parts; one fourth of oppopanax and of pigeons' dung well dried, dissolved in turpentine water or oil of sulphur; these put into a strong, close, glass vessel and heat for 15 days in an oven; after which distill the whole in the m
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