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once. The object is to prevent hens laying eggs in the nests of setting hens, and also to prevent one hen from driving another off the nest. Her-ba′ri-um. A collection of dried plants. Aristotle is considered the founder of the philosophy of botany, 347 B. C. The Historia Plantarum of Theophrastus was written about 320 B. C. Authors on botany were numerous at the close of the fifteenth century. The Botanic Gardens of Padua, Leyden, and Leipsic were established respectively in 1545, 1577, 1580; the Jardin des Plantes, in Paris, in 1624; Oxford, 1632. The system of Linnaeus was made known in 1750; and Jussieu's system, founded on Tournefort's, and called the natural system, in 1758. The latter is now accepted by such authorities as Lindley and London. The Linnaean was founded upon sexual differences, the classes being determined by the number of stamens, the orders by the number of pistils. The natural system of Jussieu is founded upon modes of growth and fructification.
ixteenth century. Knitted silk stockings were worn by Henry II, of France, 1547, and by Queen Elizabeth in 1560. About this time knitted worsted stockings were made by William Rider of London, after the pattern of some imported from Mantua. Silk and worsted stockings were imported from Spain and Italy into England during the reign of Henry VIII. Spain was always famous for its sheep and wool. (See merino.) In 1530 the word knit was common in England, and occurs in Palgrave's grammar. In 1577 the country folks knitted their own stockings. In 1589, William Lee, M. A., of Cambridge, England, invented and made a model of a knittingframe. He applied to Elizabeth for help, and then to Henry IV. of France, who promised it. The assassination of Henry threw him into poverty and obscurity, in which he died. His workmen, with their stocking-frames, settled in Derbyshire and started a factory, which soon threw the hose of woolen cloth and leather entirely out of the market. Queen Eliz
e register. By turning the tube so that the aperture forms a certain angle with the keel, the ship's draft may be ascertained. In reference to this subject Humboldt says, — It has frequently been asserted that the use of the log for measuring a ship's way dates back only to the end of the sixteenth or beginning of the seventeenth century, the year 1607 being usually assigned as the period when the first mention of it occurs. Navarrete says that it was used on board English ships in 1577, and that in Magellan's time the ship's speed was estimated by the eye. On the contrary, Pigafetta, a companion of Magellan, speaks of the log, la catena a poppa, as of a long-known means of measuring distances at sea. The Romans, in the time of the Republic, had in their ships an apparatus for measuring the distance passed over, consisting of wheels four feet high, provided with paddles placed outside the ship, after the manner of a modern steamboat, and according to the detailed descript
he beveled disk B′, and to the moon m′; the bent stem on which the latter is mounted is connected with an eccentric ring, causing it to move in an elliptic orbit around the earth; it has also a friction-wheel, which, traveling around the inclined edge of the disk B′, produces an alternate ascent and descent of the moon, illustrating its changes of declination; the parts by which the moon is revolved are also so adjusted as to exhibit the retrogression of their nodes. See also Orrery, pages 1577, 1578; planetarium, page 1727. Tel-o-dy-nam′ic Ca′ble. A means for transmitting power, originated by Hirn of Logelbach, in which high speed is employed to give the momentive effect of great mass. The motor is made to give a high velocity to a pulley-wheel, and this wheel is employed to carry a cable which passes over another pulley at the point where the power is to be applied for use. The cable may be lighter in proportion as the velocity with which it travels is greater. Theore
ntion an addition by which copper acquired a gold color. This was, undoubtedly, calamine. Albertus Magnus (1205-1280) speaks of calamine as a semimetal. The furnace-calamine, or sublimated zinc, with which the furnaces and chimneys were lined, where zinc-yielding ores were smelted, was thrown aside as useless until the middle of the sixteenth century. It had a place in the pharmacopoeia, but this use required but a small portion of the quantity produced. Erasmus Ebener, who died in 1577, used the furnace-calamine instead of native calamine for making brass. This was introduced at Rammelsberg about 1557. Its use in this connection had been previously described by Albertus Magnus. White vitriol, the sulphate of zinc, was long prepared, used, and employed before it was known that it was a salt of zinc. It is said to have been first made by Duke Julius at Rammelsberg, in 1570. Its application to make an eye-water is its first recorded use. The ore (calamine) whose effe