and receiver, but a description of the apparatus by Pliny (see amalgams) contradicts this.
It does not, however, seem to have been much practised.
In the year 1582, Herberer described the washing of gold as he saw it practised at Selz, not far from Strasburg, and at that time quicksilver had long been used for that purpose.
instrument to illustrate the motions of the heavenly bodies.
It was invented by Eratosthenes about B. C. 255, and was employed till the time of Tycho Brahe, A. D. 1582.
It was ordinarily made of brass, and disposed in such a manner that the greater and lesser circles of the sphere are seen in their natural position and motion.
y; by Hipparchus, the father of mathematical astronomy; and by Ptolemy, the astronomer, A. D. 150, whose system was accepted down to the time of Tycho Brahe, A. D. 1582, and until Copernicus, Kepler, and Galileo revived the true views of Aristarchus, the heliocentric theory promulgated nearly two thousand years before.
and is far from invariable even now in that country.
In the time of Pope Gregory XIII., A. D. 1582, the calendar had become defective to the amount of ten entire days, the vernal equinox falling oo compensate for the error, Gregory ordained, by a brief issued October 5, that the current year (1582) should have only 355 days; October 5 became October 15.
To obviate further irregularities, it wock, which had no regulating spring, was the type of the astronomical clocks used by Tycho Brahe (1582), and by many less illustrous but worthy and useful observers, at and about the same date.
Cloachine supplied a part of London with water.
The water-wheel was first placed there by Morice in 1582, but it is not stated by what device the rotary motion of the wheel was converted into the reciprdon Bridge, and subsequently under its northern arch, was erected by Peter Morice, a Dutchman, in 1582, and operated force-pumps which supplied a part of London with water.
The stand-pipe from the pu
sages are duplicated, so that a lift and delivery are obtained by each motion of the plunger: the pump has a distinct water-way both above and below the piston, so as both to draw and force water at each stroke, and thus cause a continuous stream, which is rendered more uniform by an air-chamber.
The invention of the force-pump is ascribed to Ctesibus of Alexandria, who is assumed to have been the tutor of Hero, who wrote so largely on hydraulics.
It was also described by Vitruvius.
In 1582, Peter Morice, a Dutchman, erected a pumping-engine at London Bridge, where it or its successors remained till 1821.
The power was a current-wheel turned by the flow and ebb, and first placed near the bridge, then under the northern arch; afterwards three wheels were added under the third arch; Smeaton added another under the fifth arch, and afterwards a steam-engine to assist at low-water and neap tides.
The water-wheel of Morice worked sixteen forcepumps, each seven
sed in England as early as A. D. 1236, and Henry III., about 1270, granted the citizens of London the liberty to convey water from the town of Tyburn to the city, by pipes made of lead.
A leaden cistern, built round with stone, was erected in 1285.
The length of lead-pipe then laid down, from Paddington to the Cross in Cheapside, was 1,096 rods.
Cisterns and supply-pipes of lead were numerous in the fifteenth century.
The art of casting them was invented by Rev. Robert Brooke, 1539.
In 1582, the water-works of London Bridge were established by Peter Morice, and the water distributed by lead-pipes to certain parts of the city.
In 1613, the New River, an open aqueduct 40 miles long, and having a fall of 3 inches to the mile, was finished by Sir Hugh Middleton, and the water was distributed by wooden mains and leaden branches.
In 1804, cast-iron pipes were substituted for the wooden mains.
Lead-pipe is made by casting, drawing, pressing, and rolling.
It may be cast in len
d a sketch of the machine, and, rushing to London, patented it. It would be a pity to embalm the name of a scoundrel by recording it.
The use of a crank to change a rotary to a reciprocating motion, the inverse of the Watt proposition, was not new at the date.
A 4-throw crank was employed on each end of the wallower or lantern-wheel which was driven by the water-wheel under the north end of London Bridge, as described by Beighton, 1731.
The water-wheel was first placed there by Morice in 1582, but the mode of driving the pump-piston from the rotary-shaft is not known to the writer.
To make the rotary motion continuous, passing the dead points was the next problem, and various suggestions seem to have been entertained.
The crank, receiving an impulse in one direction, might then be abandoned to the momentum of a counter-weight which was raised the previous stroke.
This weight might be placed on a wheel, and constitute a fly-wheel.
Better still, a positive motion might be give
Belgium its use for preserving telegraph-poles was abandoned on account of this; otherwise it is efficient and lasting.
See wood, preservation of.
Wooden pipes (canules ligni) were common in ancient Rome in ordinary structures.
Lead was used for the superior class of work, in conducting the water of the aqueducts to the fountains and baths.
Lap-seam wooden pipe.
Pipes made of elm logs, bored, were used for the mains in the London water-works from 1582, when Morice started the works at London Bridge, down to about 1800.
Lead-pipes had previously been used, as early as 1285, in bringing water from the springs of Tyburn to the city, and were also used by Morice for distributing-pipes.
When it was determined, about 1800, to replace the wooden mains by cast-iron pipes, the New River Company had 400 miles of wooden mains, which were taken up, and iron substituted, at the rate of twenty miles per annum.
The iron mains vary from 1 to 3 feet in