an numerals till the close of the sixteenth century, and the use of the abacus was maintained to a much later date.
Until 1600 its use was a branch of popular education.
Offices for changing money came to be indicated by a checker-board, and the a manner similar to the pressure of steam upon the surface of the water in the so-called steam-engines of Baptista Porta, 1600; De Caus, 1620; Marquis of Worcester, 1655; Savery, 1698.
See steam-engine. For many years past — probably a century or mf France, and ascribes the invention to a certain Marin of Lisieux, who presented one to Henry IV.
of France, about A. D. 1600.
An instrument of this kind was invented by Guter of Nuremberg about A. D. 1656.
Various shapes have been adopted, from d tube.
The air-thermometer is the older form, and its invention is variously ascribed to Drebbel of Holland, about A. D. 1600; to Galileo; and to Santorio of Padua (1561-1636). The instrument was constructed as follows: The air in a tube being slig
It is played by means of holes and keys, opened and closed by the fingers, after the manner of a flute.
It was invented by John Denner in Leipsic, A. D. 1600.
The double clarinet of the Arabs is termed a zoomara.
（Music.) a. A trumpet with a narrow tube, and having an acute and shrill tone.
It was iys, the strings being shortened, as in a guitar, by a device brought into action by the movement of the key, which struck the note.
We read in a Leipsic work of 1600 of an instrument brought by Praetorius from Italy to Saxony, in which each key had its own string.
This was considered quite a novelty in a keyed instrument, thouply of water to London is equal to a lake of 50 acres, 3 feet deep.
Current-wheel, London, 1731.
Stow, the antiquarian and historian, describes the works in 1600; and Beighton in 1731 gives an account of them at that date.
The water-wheels at that time were placed under several of the arches.
The axle of a wheel was 19 fe
of sound is gathered than by the natural ear.
The ear-trumpet for the assistance of the partially deaf is believed to have been invented by Baptista Porta about 1600.
Kircher describes the funnel and tube for conveying sound, the device which is now so common for conveying intelligence between apartments and shops, in dwellingt and chaps.
An instrument for changing the direction of electric currents.
Gilbert, in his book De Magnete, 1600, first introduces into the nomenclature of the sciences the word electric, deriving it from electron (Gr.
amber), which was the only substance known to the anciencushion, upon the surface of which a thin layer of an amalgam composed of tin, zinc, and mercury is spread, and a suspended flap or apron of silk.
Gilbert, in 1600, conjectured the fundamental identity of the forces known as magnetism and electricity, and measured the strength of the electricity excited by rubbing amber, glas
mbal, clavicytherium, and harpsichord. These grew out of various forms of stringed instruments, known as the dulcimer, psaltery, citole lyre, cithara, cymphonia or cymbal, citherium, and harp. See pianoforte.
The harpsichord immediately preceded the pianoforte.
In the earlier forms of these instruments the number of strings was not equal to that of the keys, but the latter brought into action devices which shortened the strings, in the manner of a guitar.
We read of an instrument in 1600 which had a key for each string, but this was unusual at that time.
Pedals were introduced 1720; double-action about 1808.
2. A concave grating in a scutching-machine, through which refuse escapes as the cotton is beaten and driven forward by the revolving beater.
3. (Husbandry.) A Scotch grain-sieve for removing weed-seeds from grain.
A barbed javelin.
The word is derived from its capacity for clawing or grasping.
about 500 B. C.; mentioned by Aristotle, 300 B. C.; explained by Galileo, A. D. 1600; investigated by Newton, 1700.
Discoursed with Mr. Hooke about the nature ofip from its slot when the lay is beating forward.
See also palm-leaf loom, page 1600, and list of patents under straw-fabric loom.
heel steam-engine (which see).
Baptista Porta (about A. D. 1600) contrived an apparatus for exhibiting the power of steam (A, Fig. 5654) Steam g, as we have had occasion to observe, in the manner contrived by Baptista Porta, 1600, Solomon De Caus (?), 1620, and the Marquis of Worcester, 1633, differs in no es
Steamer for paper stock.
The idea of Hero was revived by Baptista Porta in 1600; De Caus (?), in 1620; the Marquis of Worcester in 1633; Savery, in 1698.
See s Galen, A. D. 131; Leonardo da Vinci, died A. D. 1519; and Baptista Porta, A. D. 1600, each noticed the fact that in viewing an object the eyes received dissimilar im
, 1610, he discovered three of the moons of Jupiter, and the fourth shortly after.
His discovery of the phases of Venus furnished another proof of the truth of the heliocentric theory.
The papal persecution which followed Bruno, who was burnt in 1600, and Galileo, who was denounced in 1616, are familiar to readers.
Galileo was visited by Milton while in prison, became blind, then deaf, and died a prisoner of the Inquisition, which followed him after death, denied his right to make a will, to e reduced to the general level.
A wooden or iron way adapted to trams, that is, coal-wagons.
It was the precursor of the railway.
They were originally of wood, and first made in England in 1600.
See tram; tram-road; Railway.
The English name for the locomotive which is not used on rails.
See traction-En-Gine; road-locomotive; steam-car-Riage; Street-Railway car.
A wheel used on the small cars
Glass windows were placed in the monastery of Weremouth, A. D. 647.
St. Jerome, who wrote early in the fifth century, and Gregory of Tours, who wrote in the sixth century, mention glass windows.
The use, however, was not general in the twelfth century.
had glass windows in his palace of Woodstock, 1265, and at Westminster.
Chaucer mentions them.
Scattering mention is made of them in succeeding ages, and they became common in farm-houses about 1600.
The Venetians led the way among European nations, and attained great excellence, both in quality and taste of design; their ware was regarded with admiration, and has been preserved in England among other articles of vertu.
A factory was established in England in 1557, and improved in 1635, about which time pit coal was substituted for wood.
In 1670, Venetian artists were introduced into England, and established the art in that country.
Casting glass was invented by Theraut, a Fr