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mild and popular Yeardley was now appointed captain-general of the 1619. colony. But before the new chief magistrate could arrive in Virginia, Argall had withdrawn, having pre- Chap. IV.} 1619. viously, by fraudulent devices, preserved for himself and his partners the fruits of hved under in Englande. Nor were these concessions left Chap. IV.} 1619. dependent on the good will of administrative officers. That the plnic act, which they claimed no right to correct or con- Chap. IV.} 1619. trol; yet they kept the way open for seeking redress, in case they d. The price of tobacco was fixed at three shillings a Chap. IV.} 1619. pound for the best, and half as much for the second sort. When te liberties of their plantation. No intimidations, not Chap. IV.} 1619. even threats of blood, could deter Sir Edwin Sandys, the new treasuDomestic ties were formed; virtuous sentiments and habits of thrift 1619 to 1621. ensued; the tide of emigration swelled; within three years,
n, come hither, where neither is spoken of. Whitaker, in Purchas, b. IX. c. XI. some even of the Puritan clergy, emigrated to Virginia. They were so content with their reception, that large numbers were preparing to follow, and were restrained 1619. only by the forethought of English intolerance. We have seen, that the Pilgrims at Plymouth were invited to remove within the jurisdiction of Virginia; Puritan 1629. merchants planted themselves on the James River without fear, and emigrants frs produce. Whatever false display of zeal might be made for religion, the conversion of the heathen, the organization of the government, and the establishment of justice, the subject of tobacco was never forgotten. The sale of it in England was 1619 May. strictly prohibited, unless the heavy impost had been paid; May 25. Hazard, i. 89. a proclamation enforced the royal decree; Nov. 10. Ibid. 90.Nov and, that the tax might be gathered on the entire consumption, by a new proclamation,
e Potomac, a new government was erected, on a foundation as extraordinary as its results were benevolent. Sir George Calvert had early become interested in colonial establishments in America. A native of Yorkshire, Fuller's Worthies, 201. educated at Oxford, Wood's Athenae Oxonienses, 522, 523. with a mind enlarged by 1580. extensive travel, on his entrance into life befriended by Sir Robert Cecil, advanced to the honors of knighthood, and at length employed as one of the two secre- 1619. taries of state, Stow, edition of 1631 p. 1031. he not only secured the consideration of his patron and his sovereign, Winwood, II. 58, and III. 318 and 337. but the good opinion of the world. He was chosen by a disputed major- 1621. ity to represent in parliament his native county of Yorkshire. Debates of 1620 and 1621. i. 175. His capacity for business, his industry, and his fidelity, are acknowledged by all historians. In an age when religious controversy still continued to
in, sold the poor innocents into slavery. It is singular how good is educed from evil: one of the number, escaping from captivity, made his way to London, and, in 1619, was restored to his own country, where he subsequently became an interpreted for English emigrants. Smith's Description of New England, 47. Smith's Generall Hp. VIII.} 1618. to recall or reverse it. We must rest herein on God's providence. The dissensions in the Virginia company occasioned further delay. At last, in 1619, its members, 1619. in their open court, writes one of the Pilgrims, demanded our ends of going; which being related, they said the thing was of God, and granted 1619. in their open court, writes one of the Pilgrims, demanded our ends of going; which being related, they said the thing was of God, and granted a large patent. Being taken in the name of one who failed to accompany the expedition, the patent was never of any service. And besides, the Pilgrims, after investing all their own means, had not sufficient capital to execute their schemes. In this extremity, Robinson looked for aid to the Dutch. He and his people and their
the first map of the Chesapeake, the coast was regularly visited by fishermen and traders. A special account of the country was one of the fruits of Hakluyt's inquiries, and was published in the collections of Purchas. At Winter Harbor, near the mouth of Saco River, Englishmen, under Richard Vines, again encountered the severities of the inclement season; and not long after- 1616-7 wards, the mutineers of the crew of Rocraft lived from autumn till spring on Monhegan Island, where the 1618-9 colony of Popham had anchored, and the ships of John 1607 Smith had made their station during his visit to New 1614. England. The earliest settlers, intent only on their immediate objects, hardly aspired after glory; from the few memorials which they have left, it is not, perhaps, Chap IX.} 1623 to 1628 possible to ascertain the precise time, when the rude shelters of the fishermen on the sea-coast began to be tenanted by permanent inmates, and the fishing stages of a summer to be transfor