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e more for the New World, accompanied by monks of the order of St. Francis. Again he invades the territory of the Iroquois in New York. Wounded, and repulsed, and destitute of guides, he Chap. I.} 1615, 1616. spends the first winter after his return to America in the country of the Hurons; and a knight errant among the forests carries his language, religion, and influence, even to the hamlets of Algonquins, near Lake Nipissing. Religious disputes combined with commercial jeal- 1617 to 1620 July ousies to check the progress of the colony; yet in the summer, when the Pilgrims were leaving Leyden, in obedience to the wishes of the unhappy Montmorenci, the new viceroy, Champlain, began a fort. The merchants grudged the expense. It is not best to yield to the passions of men, was his reply; they sway but for a season; it is a duty to respect the future; and in a few years the castle St. Louis, so long the place 1624. of council against the Iroquois and against New England, was du
d who willingly defrayed the costs of their passage, which were rigorously demanded. The adventure which had been in part a mercantile speculation, succeeded so well, that it was proposed to send the next year another consignment of one hundred; 1620. but before these could be collected, the company found itself so poor, that its design could be accomplished only by a subscription. After some delays, sixty were 1621. actually despatched, maids of virtuous education, young, handsome, and welle hundred persons found their way to Virginia, which was a refuge even for Puritans. When Sandys, after a year's service, resigned his office as treasurer, a struggle ensued on the election of his successor. The meeting, on the seventeenth of 1620. May 17. May, 1620, was numerously attended; and, as the courts of the company were become the schools of debate, many distinguished members of parliament were present. A message was communicated from King James, nominating four candidates, one o
ntosh, Hist. of the Revolution of 1688. The condition of apprenticed servants in Virginia differed from that of slaves chiefly in the duration of their bondage; and the laws of the colony favored their early enfranchisement. Hening, i. 257. But this state of labor easily admitted the introduction of perpetual servitude. The commerce of Virginia had been at first monopolized by the company; but as its management for the benefit of the corporation led to frequent dissensions, it was in 1620 laid open to free competition. Stith, 171. In the 1620 month of August of that year, just fourteen months after the first representative assembly of Virginia, four months before the Plymouth colony landed in America, and less than a year before the concession of a written constitution, more than a century after the last vestiges of hereditary slavery had disappeared from English society and the English constitution, and six years after the commons of France had petitioned for the emancipa
of the colonial planters and the monarch; the former obtained the exclusive supply of the English market, and the latter succeeded in imposing an exorbitant duty. Stith, 168—170. Chalmers, 50, 52, 57. In the ensuing parliament, 1621. Lord Coke did not fail to remind the commons of the usurpations of authority on the part of the monarch, who had taxed the produce of the colonies without the consent of the people, and without an act of the national legislature; Debates of the Commons in 1620 and 1621, i. 169. and Sandys, and Diggs, and Farrar, the friends of Virginia, procured the substi- April 18. tution of an act for the arbitrary ordinance. Ibid. 269—271, and 296. Chalmers, 51. 70—74. In consequence of the dissensions of the times, the bill, which had passed the house, was left among the unfinished business of the session; nor was the affair adjusted, till, as we have already seen, the commons, in 1624, again expressed their regard for Virginia by a 1624. petition, to wh<
by 1580. extensive travel, on his entrance into life befriended by Sir Robert Cecil, advanced to the honors of knighthood, and at length employed as one of the two secre- 1619. taries of state, Stow, edition of 1631 p. 1031. he not only secured the consideration of his patron and his sovereign, Winwood, II. 58, and III. 318 and 337. but the good opinion of the world. He was chosen by a disputed major- 1621. ity to represent in parliament his native county of Yorkshire. Debates of 1620 and 1621. i. 175. His capacity for business, his industry, and his fidelity, are acknowledged by all historians. In an age when religious controversy still continued to be active, and when the increasing divisions among Chap. VII.} Protestants were spreading a general alarm, his mind sought relief from controversy in the bosom of the Roman Catholic church; and, preferring the avowal of his opinions to the emoluments of office, he resigned 1624 his place, and openly professed his conversi
After two years entreaty, the ambitious adventurers gained 1620 Nov. 3. every thing which they had solicited; and King Jameousehold and his government, the most wealthy Chap. VIII.} 1620. and powerful of the English nobility, a patent, Trumbul 160—185. Compare Hubbard, c. XXX.; Chalmers, 81—85. which 1620. in American annals, and even in the history of the world,5. the grant; Chalmers, 100—102. Parliamentary Debates, 1620-1, i. 260, 318, 319. and the French nation, whose traders hesolved. And now the English at Leyden, trusting in God 1620. and in themselves, made ready for their departure. The shsoon wafts the vessel to Southampton, and, in a fortnight. 1620 Aug. 5. the Mayflower and the Speedwell, freighted with theis instrument was signed by the whole body of Chap. VIII.} 1620. men, forty-one in number, who, with their families, constiThe next day they rose at five; their morning Chap. VIII.} 1620. prayers were finished, when, as the day dawned, a war-whoo<
Chapter 9: The extended colonization of New England The council of Plymouth for New England, having Chap IX.} 1620. obtained of King James the boundless territory and the immense monopoly which they had desired, had no further obstacles to encounter but the laws of nature and the remonstrances of parliament. No tributarir Sir George Calvert to resist. The bill passed without amendment, though it never received the royal assent. The original authorities,—Debates of the Commons, 1620—1, i. 258. 260, 261. 318, 319; Journal of Commons, in Chalmers, 100—102, and 103, 104; Sir F. Gorges' Narration, Morrell, in i. Mass Hist. Coll. i. 125—139; Smithprising individuals. We have seen that Martin Pring was the discoverer of New Hampshire, 1609 and that John Smith of Virginia had examined and Chap. IX.} 1614. 1620. extolled the deep waters of the Piscataqud. Sir Ferdinand Gorges, the most energetic member of the council of Plymouth, always ready to encounter risks in the c