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in photography, the nitrate in hair-dyes and indelible ink. Silver is separated from lead by repeated melting and crystallization of the lead; the crystals of lead being removed at each operation, the remainder becomes richer in silver, which is then removed by a process similar to that described under assay. The fact that the richer portion is less fusible than that containing a greater proportion of lead, is utilized in the Pattinson concentration process. See Pattinson's pots, page 1638. The silver-from-lead-extracting furnace, which may be considered as performing the process of cupellation on a large scale, employs the agency of heat and air-blast in the oxidation and removal of the lead, the alloy being exposed in a shallow pan of bone-dust aggregated in a basinshape within an oval frame of iron, and forming the hearth of the reverberatory. This hearth is called a test, and is supported by a fixed iron ring, called the compass-bar, in the furnace. Silver-from-lead-
Thomas Wentworth Higginson, Olde Cambridge, Chapter 1: old Cambridge (search)
ary, it being about seven miles from the college in Cambridge. Fifty years ago, Cambridge boys knew all this tradition very well; and they knew also that the soul-ravishing Mr. Shepard, after publishing a dozen or so of his books in England, printed the last two upon the press which came to Cambridge in the very year when the town assumed its name. We all knew the romance of the early arrival of this press; that the Rev. Joseph Glover, a dissenting minister, had embarked for the colony in 1638 with his wife, his press, his types, and his printer, Stephen Daye; that Mr. Glover died on the passage, but the press arrived safely and was at length put in the house of President Dunster, of Harvard College; that this good man took into his charge not merely the printing apparatus, but the Widow Glover, whom he finally made his wife. For forty years all the printing done in the British Colonies in America was done on this press, Stephen Daye being followed by his son Matthew, and he by S
Thomas Wentworth Higginson, Margaret Fuller Ossoli, Chapter 2: Hereditary traits. (search)
e is no evidence that Margaret Fuller herself had ever thought of any such analogy as I find between the type thus strongly indicated and the race from which she sprung; but in my own mind it is clear and gave the key to her life. Let us go back to her ancestry and trace this fine thread of New England vigor — which was a Roman vigor, touched by Christianity — running through it all. Thomas Fuller, entitled Lieutenant in the probate proceedings on his will, came from England to America in 1638, and left this record of his spiritual experiences. In thirty-eight I set my foot On this New England shore; My thoughts were then to stay one year, And here remain no more. But, by the preaching of God's word By famous Shepard he, In what a woful state I was, I then began to see. Christ cast his garments over me, And all my sins did cover: More precious to my soul was he Than dearest friend or lover. His pardoning mercy to my soul All thought did far surmount; The measure of his love to m
Thomas Wentworth Higginson, Margaret Fuller Ossoli, Chapter 11: Brook Farm. (search)
g the circle to which she belonged that it is well to have some good reason for introducing it here. It was one of the bestprobably the best — incarnation of the ardent and wide-reaching reformatory spirit of that day. It was a day when it certainly was very pleasant to live, although it is doubtful whether living would have remained as pleasant, had one half the projects of the period become fulfilled. The eighty-two pestilent heresies that were already reckoned up in Massachusetts before 1638, or the generation of odd names and natures which the Earl of Strafford found among the English Roundheads, could hardly surpass those of which Boston was the centre during the interval between the year 1835 and the absorbing political upheaval of 1848. The best single picture of the period is in Emerson's lecture on New England reformers, delivered in March, 1844; but it tells only a part of the story, for one very-marked trait of the period was that the agitation reached all circles. Germ
The Cambridge of eighteen hundred and ninety-six: a picture of the city and its industries fifty years after its incorporation (ed. Arthur Gilman), Harvard University in its relations to the city of Cambridge. (search)
nt area of the city, according to Paige, the historian of Cambridge, being about four and one-half square miles (2880 acres). The land now held by the President and Fellows has been acquired as a result of 107 separate negotiations, extending from 1638 to the present day. The following table shows the nature of these transactions; but in this table no account is made of transactions which did not relate to land now in possession of the university— 54separate purchases. 7separate re-purchaseso streets, and takings by the town or city. The College Yard—as the inclosure between Massachusetts Avenue and Broadway, Peabody Street and Quincy Street is called—was acquired in twelve parcels in the course of two centuries, that is, between 1638 and 1835. The delta on which Memorial Hall stands was bought in two parcels between 1786 and 1816, one of these parcels having been procured in one of the College Yard transactions. After these purchases were made, Cambridge Street and Broadway <
s in 1650, is still in force unaltered. The direct grants of money made by the Legislature of Massachusetts to Harvard College between 1636 and 1785 amounted to $116,000. In 1814, the Legislature granted $10,000 a year for ten years. Between 1638 and 1724 the town of Cambridge repeatedly gave land to the College. In common with other Massachusetts institutions of education, religion, and charity, the University enjoys exemption from taxation on its personal property, and on real estate occupied for its own purposes. Beginning with John Harvard in 1638, private benefactors have given to the University in land, buildings, and money at least $11,000,000. The principal objects of permanent endowment have been as follows— 1. Instruction and research. (a. Professorships. b. Observatories, laboratories, and workshops.) 2. Collections. (Libraries, Museums, Gardens, and Arboretum.) 3. Aid for Students. (Scholarships, Fellowships, and other aids.) 4. Prizes. (For es
1, the intention was to make it the fortified political centre of the colony. It speedily became instead an important residential and intellectual centre. A writer in 1637 pictures it with artless exaggeration as one of the neatest towns in New England, with many fair structures and handsome contrived streets. The inhabitants, most of them, he adds, were very rich. We know from other sources that many of them had scholarly tastes. Moreover, Harvard College was founded in 1636, opened in 1638, and its first class of nine young men was graduated in 1642. In the work of fitting boys for Harvard, Cambridge would naturally have had an early and prominent share. It chimes in with this theory of an earlier school that Mr. Corlett, when we first hear of him in 1643, was already in the possession of an established reputation as a teacher; he had very well approved himself for his abilities, dexterity and painfulnesse. His schoolhouse— the first one especially built for him in 1648, not
ed. He found his way to the place, and was so deeply impressed that he resolved to live and die with the ministers of New England. The town and church acquired special prominence when in the same year in which the church was formed the General Court agreed to give four hundred pounds, equal to a year's rate of the whole colony, a grant of fifty cents from each of the four thousand inhabitants, towards a school or college. The next year it was ordered that the college should be here, and in 1638 the college was opened, and Newtown became Cambridge. The college was founded here because this was a pleasant and convenient place, and the town was under the orthodox and soulflourish-ing ministry of Mr. Thomas Shepheard. The college was meant to serve the churches, and to give them a learned ministry when the first ministers should lie in the dust. The ministers of the church had a constant influence in shaping the life of the college; and the presence of the college, with its teachers
nies was done in Cambridge, and is described in the following extracts from an address made to the members of the Citizens' Trade Association, in 1894, by the late Henry 0. Houghton. Hon. H. O. Houghton's address. The first printing in the English-speaking colonies of this country was done here in Cambridge. The history of its progress is very interesting. A clergyman by the name of Glover left England with a printing-press, two or three workmen, and his family, for this country in 1638. He died on the passage, and the press was set up in January, 1639, in the house of the first president of Harvard College, Henry Dunster. This president was a man with an eye to the main chance, and he secured possession of the press by marrying the widow of the man who started from England with it, and he retained possession of it for many years. Some years afterwards, when the son of this widow had grown up, he brought suit for the recovery of the press. The president filed an account
Cambridge History of American Literature: volume 1, Colonial and Revolutionary Literature: Early National Literature: Part I (ed. Trent, William Peterfield, 1862-1939., Erskine, John, 1879-1951., Sherman, Stuart Pratt, 1881-1926., Van Doren, Carl, 1885-1950.), Chapter 1: travellers and explorers, 1583-1763 (search)
his way from one to the other. Robert Sedgwick, one of the worthiest of those New Englanders who were recalled to serve the mother country, obtained a place for himself in literary annals by the reports which he addressed to Cromwell from the West Indies, where he was in charge of an expedition against the Spaniards. Carlyle, wearied of the deadly inextricable jungle of tropical confusions through which he struggled in the Stygian quagmires of Thurloe's Collection of the State Papers from 1638 to 1661, found Sedgwick's letters of all others the best worth reading on this subject. Sedgwick was a prospering settler at Charlestown in Massachusetts, speculating in land and customs duties, an organizer of the Ancient and Honourable Artillery Company, when his worldly career was diverted by a chance meeting with Cromwell. The Lord Protector recognized a man after his own model, and sent him in quick succession against the Dutch on the Hudson River, the French at Acadia, and the Spanis
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