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ad in the field of battle With much hypocrisy, his camp was the scene of much real piety; and long afterwards, when his army was disbanded, its members, who, for the most part, were farmers and the sons of farmers, resumed their places among the industrious classes of society; while the soldiers of the royalists were often found in the ranks of vagabonds and beggars. It was the troops of Cromwell that first, in the open field, broke the ranks of the royal squadrons; and the decisive victory 1644. July 2. of Marston Moor was won by the iron energy and valor of the godly saints whom he had enlisted. The final overthrow of the prospects of Charles in 1647. the field, marks the crisis of the struggle for the ascendant between the Presbyterians and Independents. Chap XI.} The former party had its organ in the parliament, the latter in the army, in which the Presbyterian commander had been surprised into a resignation by the self-denying ordinance, and the intrigues of Cromwell. As
e arbitrary authority 1642. of Kieft. There was no distinct concession of legislative power to the people; but the people had, without a teacher, become convinced of the right of resistance. The brewers refused to pay an arbitrary excise: Were 1644 Aug. 18. we to yield, said they, we should offend the eight men, and the whole commonalty. The large proprietaries did not favor popular freedom; the commander of Rensselaer Stein had even raised a battery, that the 1644. canker of freemen migh1644. canker of freemen might not enter the manor; but Chap. XV.} 1647. the patrons cheerfully joined the free boors in resisting arbitrary taxation. As a compromise, it was proposed that, from a double nomination by the villages, the governor should appoint tribunes, to act as magistrates in trivial cases, and as agents for the towns, to give their opinion whenever they should be consulted. Town meetings were absolutely prohibited. Albany Records, III. 187, 188; VII. 74, 82, &c. Discontents increased. Vander Do