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on by the entire employment of his powers for the benefit of his creditor. Oppression early ensued: men who had been transported into Virginia at an expense of eight or ten pounds, were sometimes sold for forty, fifty, or even threescore pounds. Smith, i. 105. The supply of white servants became a regular business; and a class of men, nicknamed spirits, used to delude young persons, servants and idlers, into embarking for America, as to a land of spontaneous plenty. Bullock's Virginia, 1649, p. 14. White servants came to be a usual article of traffic. They were sold in England to be transported, and in Virginia were resold to the highest bidder; like negroes, they were to be purchased on shipboard, as men buy horses at a fair. Sad State of Virginia, 1657, p. 4, 5. Hammond's Leah and Rachel, 7. In 1672, the average price in the colonies, where five years of service were due, was about ten pounds; while a negro was worth twenty or twenty-five pounds. Blome's Jamaica, 84 and
ital offence, and the sale of arms prohibited as a felony. Bacon, 1649, c. III. VI. A regulation of intercourse with the natives was the su. and the province was rescued, though not without expense, Ibid. 1649. c. IX. from the distresses and confusion which had followed a shortsful insurrection. The controversy between the king and the par- 1649 April liament advanced; the overthrow of the monarchy seemed about t has been practised, and for the more quiet and peace- Chap. VII.} 1649. able government of this province, and the better to preserve mutualf the three persons thereof, shall be punished with death. Bacon, 1649, c. i. A true copy of the whole law is printed by Langford, 27—32. hus a negative secured to the representatives of the people. Before 1649, this change had taken place; and it was confirmed by a statute. Bacon, 1649, c. XII, and note 1650, c. i. The dangerous prerogative of declaring martial law was also limited to the precincts of the camp and
xecutive trust, they admitted to the court all church members; the character of civil magistrates was next expounded from the sacred oracles; and the election followed. Then Davenport, in the words of Moses to Israel in the wilderness, gave a charge to the governor, to judge righteously; the cause that is too hard for you,—such was part of the minister's text,— bring it unto me, and I will hear it. Annual elections were ordered; and God's word established as the only rule in public affairs. Thus New Haven made the Bible its statute-book, and the elect its freemen. As neighboring towns were planted, each was likewise a house of wisdom, resting on its seven pillars, and aspiring to be illumined by the Eternal Light. The colonists prepared for the second coming of Christ, which they confidently expected. Meantime their pleasant villages spread along the Sound, and on the opposite shore of Long Island, and for years they nursed the hope of 1640 to 1649. speedily planting Delawar
oston, and the decree of the court was oracular. Neither party was allowed to have a clear right; and both were enjoined to live in peace. But how could Vines and Cleaves assert their authority? On the death of Gorges, the people repeatedly wrote to his heirs. No answer was received; and such commissioners as had authority from 1647-8 Europe gradually withdrew. There was no relief for the colonists but in themselves; and the inhabitants of Piscataqua, Gorgeana, and Wells, following the 1649. July American precedent, with free and unanimous consent i. Mass. Hist Coll. i. 103. formed themselves into a body politic for the purpose of self-government. Massachusetts readily offered its protection. The great charter of the Bay company 1652 May 30. was unrolled before the general court in Boston, and, upon perusal of the instrument, it was voted, that this jurisdiction extends from the northernmost part of the River Merrimack, and three miles more, north, be it one hundred mile