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being still unsuccessful, he again pursued a southerly track, and finally anchored in Old Town harbor, on Martha's Vineyard. The whole absence lasted about six months, and was completed without disaster or danger. Purchas, IV. 1654—1656. Compare Belknap, II. 123—133; Williamson's Maine, i. p. 185—187. Pring, a few years later, 1606. repeated his voyage, and made a more accurate survey of Maine. Enterprises for discovery were now continuous. Bartholomew Gilbert, Purchas, IV. 1656—1658. returning from the West Indies, made an unavailing search for the colony of Raleigh. It was the last attempt to trace the remains of those unfortunate men. But as the testimony of Pring had confirmed the reports of Gosnold, the career of navigation was vigorously pursued. An expedition, pro- 1605. moted by the Earl of Southampton and Lord Arundel, of Wardour, and commanded by George Weymouth, who, in attempting a north-west passage, had already explored the coast of Labrador, now discove
yield Dunkirk, Mardyke and Gravelines; and Dunkirk, in the summer of 1658, was given up to his ambassador by the French king in person. Nor w II. Mass. Hist. Coll. IX. 119. son of an old planter, was next 1658. honored with the office. But, from too exalted ideas of his statio apprehensive of a limitation of colonial liberty by the Chap VI.} 1658. reference of a political question to England, determined on a solemening, i. 504, 505. The death of Cromwell made no change in the 1658. constitution of the colony. The message of the governor duly annou that it was not refused; for, some months before Cromwell's death, 1658. Mar. the Virginians invited the Dutch and all foreigners to trade wh of their fathers, all things respecting parishes and parishioners 1658 May. 1 were referred to their own ordering; Ibid. 433, Act 1. 1651658. and religious liberty would have been perfect, but for an act of intolerance, by which all Quakers were banished, and their return regarded
; and the commissioners were sustained by the Puritans of St. Leonard's. At length, the conditions of a compromise were settled; and the government of the whole prov- Mar. 24. ince was surrendered to the agent of the proprietary. Permission to retain arms; an indemnity for arrears; relief from the oath of fealty; and a confirmation of the acts and orders of the recent Puritan assemblies;— these were the terms of the surrender, and prove the influence of the Puritans. Bacon's Preface, and 1658, c. i. McMahon, 211, and Council Proceedings, in McMahon, note to 14 Fendall was a weak and impetuous man; but I cannot find any evidence that his administration was stained by injustice. Most of the statutes enacted during his government were thought worthy of being perpetuated. The death of Cromwell left the condition of England uncertain, and might well diffuse a gloom through the counties of Maryland. For ten years the unhappy province had been distracted by Chap. VII.} dissensio
n, that it was soon repealed, and was never printed. But this legislation was fruitful of results. Quakers swarmed where they were feared. They came expressly because they were not welcome; and threats were construed as invitations. A penalty 1658 May of ten shillings was now imposed on every person for being present at a Quaker meeting, and of five pounds for speaking at such meeting. In the execution of the laws, the pride of consistency involved the magistrates in acts of extreme crueltart at his pleasure. Vain legislation! and frivolous apology! The soul, by its freedom and immortality, preserves its convictions or its frenzies even amidst the threat of death. It has been attempted to excuse the atrocity of the Chap. X.} 1658. law, because the Quakers avowed principles that seemed subversive of social order. Any government might, on the same grounds, find in its unreasonable fears an excuse for its cruelties. The argument justifies the expulsion of the Moors from Spa