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their fires. He farther cites that the walls of Babylon were of brick cemented with bitumen, and that the latter was imported from thence into Rome as a medicinal agent, and a material for varnishing heads of nails and various other articles of iron. The Romans used large, thin bricks or wall-tiles as a bond in their rubble constructions, and such continued to be used in England until regular masonry was introduced shortly before the Norman Conquest, 1066. After the great fire of London, 1666, brick was substituted for wood in the erection of buildings in London. The ancient nations excelled in the quality of their bricks, which was probably owing to the abundance of labor, good sunshine, and patience. The thorough working and tempering of the clay, to develop its plastic quality, followed by good drying, lengthened seasoning, and careful burning, will account for the quality. In China, the potters work up the clay provided by their fathers, and lay up a store to ripen for th
forth. 2. One form of band-saw or scroll-saw is also made of separate teeth pivoted or hooked together. Chain-saw carrier. Chain-saw Car′rier. (Surgical.) A hinged and hooked instrument whereby the end of the chain-saw, or a ligature, by which the saw may be drawn, is passed beneath a deep-seated bone, and so far up on the other side as to be grasped by a forceps. Chain-shot. A shot formed of two hemispheres or spheres connected by a chain. Invented by Admiral DeWitt, 1666. Formerly much employed for carrying away rigging in naval actions. They were sometimes fired from a cannon with two slightly diverging barrels, united at the breech, forming a single chamber, and discharged through a single vent. Chain-stitch. 1. An ornamental stitch resembling a chain. 2. (In sewing-machines.) A loop-stitch in contradistinction to a lock-stitch. It consists in looping the upper thread into itself, on the under side of the goods; or using a second thread to engag
s thereby carried round in the direction of the arrow. When the leaf has passed the upper part of the opening w, the steam that has been acting upon it escapes, but at the same time the opposite leaf has passed the top of the steam-opening v, and is carried round in a similar manner. The engine has no valves, the action of the piston is at all times direct, and the engine can be stopped, started, or reversed at any position of the piston. Bishopp's disk steam-engine (English), (C, Fig. 1666). The piston of this engine has the form of a disk b attached to a shaft c, which has a sphere d on its mid-length occupying a space between two frustums of cones which form the cylinder-heads. The center of the sphere occupies the position that would form the point of meeting to the apexes of the two cones, were they prolonged. The disk and shaft do not revolve on their axis, though the ends of the shaft describe circles, as the disk wobbles on the cones, keeping one radius on each side in
n very thoroughly debated. The capitals and other large cities of the world were not originally laid out for the modern means of locomotion. We see in the cities of Asia the condition which formerly existed in European towns, — narrow streets without sidewalks, adapted for pedestrians, equestrians, pack-animals, and sedanchairs. Jeddo, Macao, and other Asiatic cities where the natives are yet dominant, have in general no provision for wheeled vehicles, and London before the great fire of 1666 was in much the same condition. The foot-traveler was jostled by the horseman, and stood on one side to let the train of packanimals go by, just as the modern traveler resigns the road in favor of the loaded camel or the ambling donkey in the streets of Alexandria. The sedanchair of England and the palanquin of Constantinople were carried by shambling porters, who were attended after nightfall by torch-bearers and guards, who illuminated the way and kept off the prowling robber. Asia, hav
f the Caspian have similar shelters. The hatters attribute the art of felting to Clement. The hatters are a very modern guild, and cannot antedate their order beyond the year 1400. Dr. Hooke lectured on felt-making before the Royal Society, 1666. – Pepys. The mechanical features of the operation of felting are derived from the jagged character of the edges of some animal fibers, which enables them to pass in one direction, that is, root first, but opposes their withdrawal. The most f-plugs were laid down in the streets of London in 1710; previous to that time the water was carried in buckets and poured into the fire-engine reservoirs. Much attention was drawn to the matter of fireengines by the disastrous fire of London in 1666, and an act of Common Council was passed shortly after the event, compelling parishes and incorporated companies to maintain an efficient supply of buckets, hand-squirts, and fire-engines. If we may judge by the description in Clare's Motion of
Hampton Court Palace yet displays their tapestry on its walls. These hangings were a very ornamental accession to the bare walls of the buildings of some centuries since. Arras, Brussels, Antwerp, and Valenciennes excelled in the manufacture, but the best known at the present day is the factory at the Gobelin's, near Paris. It is named after Giles Gobelin, a French dyer, of the reign of Francis I, and was established by Henry IV. about 1606, and much enlarged by the renowned Colbert in 1666. It is said to have been conducted by Flemish artists. Hand tapestry is embroidered by the needle, woolen or silken threads being worked into the meshes of a fabric. Basse lisse is woven upon a loom. The warp is horizontal, and is stretched above the pattern to be copied. The weft is inserted by a flute, which partakes of the characters of a needle and a shuttle A treadle arrangement depresses some of the threads and forms a parted shed. The face of the work, being downward, cannot
f linen and partly of double cotton warps with mohair yarn weft. Vel′vet. (Fabric.) A silk fabric in which the warp is passed over wires so as to make a row of loops which project from the backing, and are thus left by withdrawing the wire for an uncut or pile velvet; but are cut by a knife to make a cut velvet. Mentioned in Joinville and in the will of Richard II. Called, anciently, vellet. There bought velvett for a coat and camelott for a cloak for myself. — Pepys's Diary, 1666. Vel-vet-een′. (Fabric.) A cut-piled fabric of cotton. It differs from velvet only in respect of the material. When it has a twilled back it is called Genoa. Vel′vet-loom. A pile-fabric loom. Vel′vet-pa′per. Wall-paper printed with glue and dusted with shearings of cloth or flock. It was invented by Lanyer, who obtained an English patent in 1634. He employed shearings of wool, silk, and other materials upon backings of paper, cloth, silk, cotton, and leathe