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crease of population is the surest criterion of public happiness, Connecticut was long the happiest state in the world. Trumbull, i. 451, gives the number of inhabitants at 17,000, in 1713. There were, probably, as many as 17,000, and more, in 1688. Religion united with the pursuits of agriculture, to give to the land the aspect of salubrity. The domestic wars were discussions of knotty points in theology; the concerns of the parish, the merits of the minister, were the weightiest affairs; d by some latent motive of party to impair the merits of the illustrious dead, and envy the reputation of states. The laws of Rhode Island, which had been repeatedly revised by committees, were not published till after, not only the revolution of 1688, but the excitements consequent on the Hanoverian succession; and we find in the oldest printed copy now extant, I have seen none older than the edition of 1744. that Roman Catholics were excepted from the enjoyment of freedom of conscience. T
lation of clients and patrons. Such were the constitutions devised for Carolina by Shaftesbury and Locke, by the statesman who was the type of the revolution of 1688, and the philosopher who was the antagonist of Descartes and William Penn. Several American writers have attempted to exonerate Locke from a share in the work whi productions of the south of Europe. Chalmers, 541. Ramsay, II. 5. Carolina, by T. A. p. 8, 9. From England, also, emigrations were considerable. 1670 to 1688. The character of the proprietaries was a sufficient invitation to the impoverished Cavalier; and the unfortunate of the church of England could look to the shoreshe country against a military despotism. It was evident, the people were resolved on establishing a government agreeable to themselves. The English revolution of 1688 was therefore imitated on the banks of the Ashley and Cooper. Soon after William 1690 and Mary were proclaimed, a meeting of the representatives of South Carolin
and harsh imprisonment; the refusal to take an oath sometimes involved them in a forfeiture of property; nor was it before 1688, six years after the arrival of William Penn in America, that indulgence was fully conceded. Meantime the virtues of beue, the people of England had sat in judgment on their king. The approach of the revolution effected no im- Chap. XIV.} 1688. mediate benefit to Lord Baltimore. What though mutinous speeches and practices against the proprietary government were pin December, 1689, the exiles were pardoned. Laing's Scotland, IV. 166. Dalrymple, ii. 53. Mackintosh, Hist. of Rev. 1688. Appendix, No. ii. p. 705. Am. Ed. Chalmers, 358. Tyranny and injustice peopled America with men nurtured in suffering ahe collected energy of the public mind. Such was the character of the new assembly which was convened some months before 1688. April. the British revolution. The turbulent spirit of the burgesses was greater than ever, and an immediate dissolution
There is no reason to suppose any undue bias on the minds of the committee; had a wrong been suspected, the decision would have been reversed at the revolution of 1688. This decision formed the basis of an agreement between the respective heirs of the two proprietaries in 1732. Three years afterwards the subject became a questl alike on the ground of both; the sun shines on us equally; and we ought to love one another. Such was the diplomacy of the Quaker envoy. The king Chap. XVI.} 1688. of the Delawares answered, What you say is true. Go home, and harvest the corn God has given you. We intend you no harm. The white man agreed with the red manGerman colony of Gustavus Adolphus was designed to rest on free labor. If the general meeting of the Quakers for a season forbore a positive judgment, already, in 1688, the poor hearts from Kirchheim, the little handful of German Friends from the highlands above the Rhine, came to the resolution that it was not lawful for Christi
ng James, who revered the prerogative with idolatry; and in 1688, to stay the process for forfeiture, the proprietaries, stiestored. The negotiations fail; and Haaskouaun advances 1688. with five hundred warriors to dictate the terms of peace. ore a town-meeting was allowed only for the choice of town 1688. Mar. 16. officers. The vote by ballot was rejected. To ain a surplice. By-and-by, the people were desired to con- 1688. June 23. tribute towards erecting a church. The bishops, The taxes, in amount not grievous, were for public 1687 1688. purposes. But the lean wolves of tyranny were themselves htion, said Danforth, is little inferior to absolute slave- 1688 Oct. 22. ry; and the people of Lynn afterwards gave thanks the restoration of Charles II., the Puritan or re- 1660 to 1688. publican element lost all hope of gaining dominion; and thple only as followers of the gentry. Yet the revolution of 1688 is due to the dissenters quite as much as to the whig arist
con- Chap. XVIII.} temporary documents and records, the colonization of the twelve oldest states of our Union. At the period of the great European revolution of 1688, they contained not very many beyond two hundred thousand inhabitants, of whom Massachusetts, with Plymouth and Maine, may have had forty-four thousand; New HampshPetty, 75, says 150,000. Brattle says, in 1708, in N. England, from 100 to 120,000. This is right, and corresponds with other data. In the account for N. E. for 1688, I have confidence. Neal blunders about Boston, which, m 1790, had not 20,000, much less in 1720. The statements in the text are made by inductions, and are, I berage, tithes, prelates, prescriptive franchises, and every established immunity and privilege. The three nations and the three systems were, by the revolution of 1688, brought into direct contrast with one another. At the same time, the English world was lifted out of theological forms, and entered upon the career of commerce,