Air as a means of transmitting power.
So far as our information extends, the first person to use compressed air as a means of transmitting power was that ingenious Frenchman, Dr. Papin of Blois, about A. D. 1700.
We shall have occasion to refer to him in the History of the SteamEngine.
He was the first to apply a piston in the steam-cylinder, and was the inventor of the digester, and the steelyard safety-valve, — the best and simplest effective form yet devised.
Papin used a fall of water to compress air into a cylinder, and led it thence by a pipe a distance of a mile.
Having reached its destination, it was employed to drive a piston in a cylinder, the power being intended to work a pump.
is suspended on gimbals, which enable it to maintain its verticality during the rolling and pitching motions of a ship, and has a contraction at the bottom of the tube to obviate oscillations of the mercury.
It was introduced about the year 1698-1700.
The invention of the aneroid barometer is attributed to Conti, 1798, or to Vidi, 1804.
In the aneroid barometer (which, as its name implies, has no liquid) the pressure of the atmosphere is exerted upon an elastic metallic diaphragm above a boats.
Bridges of boats were in general use in the Middle Ages, and are still used on the Continent of Europe.
One at Strasbourg is 1,300 feet long, and there is another at Cologne.
One across the Seine at Rouen was constructed by Nicolas in 1700.
Boat-bridges, in a military point of view, are classed as ponton-bridges, the pontons or bateaux and the road-bed being transported on wagons with the army, and thrown across streams as necessity may occur.
The bateaux are moored to ropes se
that beginning each fourth century.
Thus the years 1700 and 1800 were not bissextile, nor will 1900 be, but Germany adopted the New Style at various times from 1700 to 1774. Great Britain adopted the New Style by act ok on Natural magic.
Sir Isaac Newton remodeled it, 1700.
Daguerre, in 1839, rendered the images obtained thhack and pack-horse were used in England until about 1700.
The making of roads preceded the extensive use of fect, except the compensation added by Graham, about 1700.
Anchor pallets were introduced by Clement, in 16elix.
Graham invented the dead-beat escapement in 1700.
The spring as a motor for timeee-trees were imported from Mocha by the Dutch about 1700, and thence carried to Surinam.
In 1714 a coffee-pland the importation of cotton goods was forbidden in 1700.
An act of parliament in 1721 imposed a fine of £ Wilkinson, at Elephantine, as equal to nine feet in 1700 years; at Thebes, seven feet in an equal period.
dead-smooth file; having the least possible hight of teeth.
（Fortification.) The space in front of a parapet which is out of view of the soldiers in the work, and which they cannot fire upon.
An axle which runs, but does not communicate motion, as distinguished from a driving-axle, which is a live-axle.
This, which is also known as the escapement of repose, was invented by Graham about 1700, and was intended to isolate the going works more completely from the pendulum.
The seconds-hand in the dead-beat stands still after each drop, whereas in the recoil-escapement there is a back-lash to the train.
The working surfaces of the pallets of the anchor in this escapement are curved concentrically with the axis of oscillation of the anchor.
When a pallet escapes from one tooth and allows a partial rotation of the scape-wheel, a tooth on the opposite side is arrested by the other
of the gas, or by the play of the pump-brakes.
In connection with this subject it may be stated that the rate of insurance by land and sea among the Hindoos was left to the custom of the trade, according to the risk.—Institutes of Menu A. D. 880.
Nicholson states that fire-insurance offices were first introduced under the reign of the Emperor Claudius.
The Hand in hand Fire Insurance Company was the first established in London, 1696.
The Sun Fire Insurance Company was established in 1700. Marine insurance had long been common in Venice.
The Amicable Life Insurance Company of London was chartered in 1706.
Fire-insurance offices established in Paris, 1745.
American steam fire-engine.
Fire-escapes are divided into three classes:—
1. Fire-ladders are made of several lengths, to reach second, third, or fourth story windows, and are mounted on a suitable carriage for transportation.
The upper en<
rranged so as to be changed instantly from one to the other; compound tables arranged to move vertically, with horizontal movement at right angles and parallel to drilling-spindle; the arbor which carries the drilling-spindle is arranged with face-plates, so that the machine can be used as a face-lathe.
One in which the impulse is given by the teeth of a horizontal wheel acting on a hollow cylinder on the axis of the balance.
It was invented by Graham, about 1700.
The diagram shows the action, the cylinder being represented in two positions at different portions of its oscillation.
The pallets a b c on the wheel rest alternately on the inside and the outside of the cylinder, their beveled edges sliding against the edges of the cylinder, to communicate an impulse thereto.
It is a dead-beat escapement.
There is considerable friction.
The parts are delicate and hard to repair.
The cylinder has been made of a ruby, but at great expense.
ewel always has an end-stone, or cap c, the balance running on the end of its pivot in order that it may have the utmost freedom; the pivot being but the 1/100 of an inch in diameter.
Diamonds are sometimes used for end-stones, but rarely, if ever, for jewels, it being next to impossible to drill a hole sufficiently small in so hard a substance.
The invention of the process of drilling holes in rubies is attributed to M. Fazio, a native of Geneva, who introduced it into London in the year 1700.
Rubies are used as jewels in good watches.
They are the hardest stone that can be drilled, but cheaper stones, such as crystals, garnets, etc., and even glass of hard quality, are often used.
The lower portion of Fig. 2717 represents on an enlarged scale the jeweled pivot-hole for the verge, or the axis of the balance of a marine chronometer.
a is a hardened steel pivot, which is turned with a fine cylindrical neck, and is made convex at the end; the jewel consists of two stones; one
rman of London, a maker of compasses, was the first, so far as we know, to detect the dip and publish the fact; 1576.
He contrived the dipping-needle, suspended on a horizontal axis, and found the dip at London to be 71° 50′.
Robert Halley, in 1700, published a chart, having lines passing through points of equal magnetic variation.
His remark was that of a philosopher: —
The nice determination of the variation, and several other particulars in the magnetic system, is reserved for a remotf mercury and raises a column in a glass tube.
A form of level in which mercury is used.
A compensation pendulum invented by Graham of London, 1700.
A jar of mercury is used for the bob or weight.
As the pendulum expands the mercury rises, and by the rise of its center of gravity compensates for the other inequality.
ece of watch-spring.
Graham, of London, invented the mercurial compensation pendulum (d) about 1700.
In it a jar of mercury is used for the bob or weight.
As the pendulum-rod is expanded longitud balance.
It is probably the invention of Dr. Hooke.
Jewels were added by Facio of Geneva about 1700.
The compensation balance (i) was made by Harrison.
(See chronometer.) The circumference is divly determined.
We read of a planetarium by Watson, in 1689, and another constructed by Rowley, 1700, from the plans of Graham.
This was the one referred to above as having come into the possessione strakes of thicker plank.
The term is used in shipbuilding, and also in piling. See pile, page 1700.
2. (Spinning.) The splicing together of slivers of long-stapled wool.
See breaking-machineg that every house in Paris should be furnished with a privy were passed in 1513, 1533, 1697, and 1700.
A non-compliance was rendered penal.
In other cities of France the same regulations were made.
The learned and practical Dr. Hook followed in the same line, about twenty years afterward, and did not leave the matter in any uncertainty.
About 1700, Amontous exhibited a semaphore in operation, but the Grand Monarque was too busy with his Versailles and Marly to attend to it.
In the stirring times of the Frbration of the atmosphere, is ascribed to Pythagoras, about 500 B. C.; mentioned by Aristotle, 300 B. C.; explained by Galileo, A. D. 1600; investigated by Newton, 1700.
Discoursed with Mr. Hooke about the nature of sounds, and he did make me understand the nature of musical sounds made by strings, mighty prettily; and told first apparatus is described.
Savery's apparatus (Fig. 5657) is illustrated in the 21st volume of Philosophical Transactions, A. D. 1700, the patent being granted by the astute William III.
It is stated to be for raising water by the help of fire.
The illustration shows a double apparatu