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Lucius R. Paige, History of Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1630-1877, with a genealogical register 66 66 Browse Search
Edward H. Savage, author of Police Recollections; Or Boston by Daylight and Gas-Light ., Boston events: a brief mention and the date of more than 5,000 events that transpired in Boston from 1630 to 1880, covering a period of 250 years, together with other occurrences of interest, arranged in alphabetical order 45 45 Browse Search
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing) 19 19 Browse Search
Knight's Mechanical Encyclopedia (ed. Knight) 8 8 Browse Search
HISTORY OF THE TOWN OF MEDFORD, Middlesex County, Massachusetts, FROM ITS FIRST SETTLEMENT, IN 1630, TO THE PRESENT TIME, 1855. (ed. Charles Brooks) 7 7 Browse Search
George Bancroft, History of the United States from the Discovery of the American Continent, Vol. 3, 15th edition. 6 6 Browse Search
Medford Historical Society Papers, Volume 3. 3 3 Browse Search
The writings of John Greenleaf Whittier, Volume 6. (ed. John Greenleaf Whittier) 2 2 Browse Search
The writings of John Greenleaf Whittier, Volume 1. (ed. John Greenleaf Whittier) 2 2 Browse Search
H. Wager Halleck , A. M. , Lieut. of Engineers, U. S. Army ., Elements of Military Art and Science; or, Course of Instruction in Strategy, Fortification, Tactis of Battles &c., Embracing the Duties of Staff, Infantry, Cavalry, Artillery and Engineers. Adapted to the Use of Volunteers and Militia. 2 2 Browse Search
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Browsing named entities in Knight's Mechanical Encyclopedia (ed. Knight). You can also browse the collection for 1708 AD or search for 1708 AD in all documents.

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ists of disks sawn or chopped from a log and bored for the axle. The tongue or pole is secured to the axle and forms the frame of the bed, somewhat like a city dray. Enlargements on the centers of the wheels outside form hubs, to prevent the wobbling of the wheels on the spindles. The hub and spindles, being of wood, and having a plentiful lack of grease, make music, —such as it is. The French Engineer Perronet, who executed so many heavy public improvements during the last century (b. 1708; d. 1794), seems to have been capable of great projects, original devices, fanciful ornamentation, graceful designs, and effective details. Perronet's carts. His ingenuity was manifested in the centering of his arches, coffer-dams, hydraulic and hoisting machines, and in many other departments which we have had occasion to refer to in their proper places. For removing the earth excavated in constructing the foundations of his numerous bridges, he used carts in pairs, coupled togethe
eer, had a dredging-machine on the principle of the French chapelet; a long trough being lowered to the mud, and traversed by an endless chain provided with boards at intervals. The boards scraped up the mud and carried it up in the trough, from whose upper end it was discharged into lighters. A horsewheel was employed. In the reign of Charles I., Balme made a vertical wheel with six buckets, which worked between boats and raised mud. It was employed in the fens of Lincolnshire. About 1708, Savery patented a steam dredgingmachine for raising ballast from the Thames. In 1796, Watt made a steam dredger for deepening Sunderland Harbor. The dredging-machine described by the Marquis of Worcester was a water-screw, but the bottom made of iron plate, spade-wise, which at the side of a boat emptieth the mud of a pond or raiseth gravel. The dredging-machine described in the Theatrum Instrumentorum et Machinarum, 1578, was rather an elevator than a dredger. The buckets were att
surface of the mercury when the barometer was shaken; a fact which one of the celebrated mathematicians, Bernoulli, attempted to explain on the Cartesian system, but which was afterwards correctly attributed by Hawkesbee to electricity. Wall, in 1708, observed the sparks produced from amber, and Hawkesbee noticed the sparks and snapping under various modifications. Dufay and the Abbe Nollet were the first to draw sparks from the human body; an experiment which attracted great attention, andognized phenomena of repulsion. He heard the first sound and saw the first light in artificially excited electricity. Newton saw the first traces of an electric charge in 1675, in some experiment with a rubbed plate of glass. Although Wall in 1708, Gray in 1734, and Nollet, conjectured the identity of frictional electricity and lightning, yet Franklin was the first to attain the experimental certainty by his well-known kite experiment in 1752. Electrical machine. Electrical machines w
ith the water. It is also used in fortifications. The drawbridges (a) of Brussels were balanced by weights attached to chains passing over standards that stood immediately over the walls of the canal, and were braced and stayed by timbers and iron ties. The weight of the draws was borne by struts beneath, which were footed in set-offs in the faces of the masonry, and rested at their upper ends against jogs beneath the sill-timbers of the bridge. Perronet, the great French engineer, 1708 – 94, was the chief engineer of the Ponts et Chaussecs from 1747, and did more for the science of bridge-building than any of his contemporaries. He contrived a drawbridge (b) which had a short middle draw to allow the masts of vessels to pass when the headway beneath the bridge was sufficient for the hulls of the vessels. This middle section is hinged to one portion of the bridge and lifted by a chain and winch. Lifting-bridges. Lift′ing-gear. (Steam-engine.) The apparatus fo<
to run in a certain track and lift a furrow-slice, which it upset against the previous one or completely reversed, seems to have been unknown till quite late times. The improvements of the last hundred years are probably greater than those of the previous thousand, and the tool is regarded as about perfect. Any great advances will now consist in the adaptation of machinery as a motor. A number of forms are to be cited presently. It would seem that until the time of the dearth in Egypt, 1708-12 B. C, the land was held by proprietors in fee; but under the skillful financiering of Joseph it reverted to the crown, the people thereon going into vassalage also. Behold, says Joseph, I have bought you this day and your land for Pharaoh. Thus the nation became changed from freeholders to lease-holders. The king's share was thereafter one fifth of the crop. This was for grain; for wine, the practice in a neighboring country was the reverse. Thou, O Solomon, must have one thousand, an
mbrane, which is set in vibration by the tone, and which by its vibrations continually makes and breaks the electric circuit. The number of breaks in a second corresponds with the number of vibrations belonging to the tone sounded (see pipe, page 1708); and since the current passes at the other end of the line through a helix around a soft iron bar, this bar is magnetized and demagnetized, alternately, as many times in a second as there are vibrations in the tone sounded at the sendingin-strumewn through a die, like a piece of solid wire. See pipe; lead-pipe. For lead-pipe making and lining with tin, see pages 1271, 1272. For making of gun-barrels, see pages 1032, 1033. For bushing, see page 413. See also pipe, pages 1707, 1708, and list under that head. For tubing for oil-wells, see well-tubing. 2. India-rubber tubes are made: — 1. By wrapping slips of rubber or rubbercloth around a mandrel of glass, which is afterward withdrawn, the layers and the edges being