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m of metal planingmachine which has short, quick motions, and is used in shaping objects, planing seats for valves, faces for the same, etc. 10. (Nautical.) The cross-trees. 11. (Music.) Formerly the hammer or quillcarrier of a clavichord, virginal, harpsichord, or spinet, but now an intermediate piece which conveys to the hammer the motion imparted to the key. The piano-movement jack, which imparts the motion of the key to the hammer, is the invention of Christofori of Florence, 1711. Rimbault's Pianoforte, London, 1860. See piano-Forte. As a compound word, see under the following heads: — Boot-jack.Jack-frame. Bottle-jack.Jack-head pump. Builder's jack.Jack-in-a-basket. Carriage-jack.Jack-in-a-box. Chimney-jack.Jack-knife. Claw-jack.Jack-ladder. Crick.Jack-pin. Fence-jack.Jack-plane. Hand-screw.Jack-rafter. Hoisting-jack.Jack-screw. Hydraulic jack.Jack-sinker. Hydraulic lifting-jack (see hydraulic presses and lifters).Jack-staff. Jack-stay. Jack-tim
— Latitude.Length of degree of longitude in English feetLatitude.Length of degree of longitude in English feet. 0365,16250235,171 10359,64060183,629 20343,26370125,254 30316,4938063,612 40280,106900 Odometers were possessed by Augustus, the Elector of Saxony, A. D. 1553-86, and for Emperor Rodolphus II. 1576-1612. In the eighteenth century they became common, and descriptions are found in scientific reports and works of that date. Hohlfield, born at Hennerndorf, in Saxony, in 1711, seems to have much improved the instrument. A new French instrument, termed a compteur mecanique, or calculating-machine, not only reckons the distance traversed, but indicates as well the exact sum of money due to the driver. Two dials are fixed on the back of the driving-seat; one contains a clock, while on the other the distance traveled is indicated by a hand acted on by the wheels; it is entirely beyond the control either of cabby on his fare. The apparatus is put in and out of gea
rte, are introduced, etc. Piano-Forte movements. A, Bartolomineo Cristofori of Florence, 1711. B, Mason, London, 1755. C, single action. The hammer-harpsichord, so called from the substtution of hammers for plectra, was the first piano-forte, and invented by Cristofori of Florence, 1711. It had a row of leather-topped hammers, which vibrated on a rod and struck the string from beloption by Scipione Maffei and a cut were published in the Giornale dea Litterati d'italia, Venice, 1711 (Tom. V. p. 144). In A, Fig. 3686: a, string; b, frame of key-board; c, key with a pad on thecity for forte or piano effects, and the transposed words in the article in the Venetian journal (1711), quoted above, which speaks of the piano and forte as being heard, and also gradations and diverctor of Saxony, in 1710. Botticher invented the hard paste in 1706; the red ware like jasper, in 1711: white porcelain, in 1709; the perfect, white kind, in 1715. He died in 1719. Heroldt introduce
e straw as it issues from the throat of the machine. The knife revolves in the plane of its length. III. The cutting roller or pair of rollers with knives, between which the straw passes. The knives are across the throat of the machine. IV. Cutting knives revolving in the plane of the direction of the feed, and cutting across the mouth of the box. V. Straw-grinders. Guillotine-cutter chaff-box. The Hebrews cut straw and grain in the sheaf for food. Hohlfield, of Saxony, 1711-1771, invented a straw-chopper, while in the service of the Prussian minister, Count de Podenils, at Gusow. We are not informed as to its construction. This inventor also produced a thrashing-machine, an odometer, a pedometer, a loom for figured fabrics, a harpsichord, and several other ingenious machines. The chaff-cutter of the last century was a trough in which the straw or hay was pushed along by a fork, so as to be exposed at the end of the trough to a knife which was pivoted at one
-dung and the marc of olives are still used in France for preparing thrashing-floors. Thrashing in Lombardy is generally performed by means of a fluted roller (Fig. 6390) drawn around in a circular track. Hohlfield of Hermerndorf, in Saxony, 1711-1771, invented a thrashing-machine while working on the estate of Gusow, in the service of the Prussian minister, Count de Podervils. We are not informed as to its construction; it seems to have given satisfaction. He also invented a straw-choppipes. The example (Fig. 6730) has a fixed jaw which grasps the pipe, and a slider which carries a rotary circular cutter and is advanced by a screw, while the instrument is turned about the pipe by means of its handle. See also pipe-cutter, page 1711. Tube-condenser. Fig. 6731 is a special tool for cutting off boiler-tubes when their exterior cannot be reached. The lower end of the stock is inserted into the tube; the tool projects radially from the revolving-stock and cuts off the boil
te. These instruments, with hammers and quills in various forms and combinations having been in use for nearly three centuries at the time the piano-forte was introduced, it is hardly worth while to give credit to any particular person at that late date for the invention of an instrument in which the strings of a prostrate harp were struck by hammers. The improvements on that well known device were, however. great, and the piano may be sail to date from that of B. Christofori of Florence, 1711. See A, Fig. 3686, and accompanying description, page 1691. Vis-à--Vis. A dress-carriage for town use. Vise. 1. An instrument with two jaws, between which an object may be clamped securely, leaving both hands free for work. The hand-vise is not a vise proper, but has a tang which is grasped by one hand, while the other holds the tool to work upon the object held. A better definition could hardly be given than that of the Autocrat of the Breakfast-table, when vicepresident at
rench. A bar having jaws adapted to catch upon the head of a bolt or upon a nut to turn it, or to hold the latter from turning in some cases when the bolt is being rotated. Some wrenches have a variety of jaws to suit different sizes of nuts and bolts. The monkey-wrench, which has an adjustable inner jaw, is the best form of the wrench, and many patents have been granted for new and improved forms of the tool. See Fig. 3214, page 1473. See also pipe-wrench, Figs. 3735-3738, page 1711. Wrenches. Figs. 7366-7368 show several forms of wrenches, for various purposes and adapted to different situations. Pipe-wrench and pipe-tongs. In the self-adjusting wrenches and pipe-tongs (Fig. 7369), the curved inner faces of the jaws are serrated; various sizes of pipes may be firmly grasped by opening the jaws to a greater or less extent and inserting the pipe to a proper distance within the opening, one hand being employed to compress the handle of the movable jaw, and the
Cambridge History of American Literature: volume 1, Colonial and Revolutionary Literature: Early National Literature: Part I (ed. Trent, William Peterfield, 1862-1939., Erskine, John, 1879-1951., Sherman, Stuart Pratt, 1881-1926., Van Doren, Carl, 1885-1950.), Chapter 2: the historians, 1607-1783 (search)
contains little about civil affairs. Lawson was English born and bred, and lived only a few years after his arrival, but he had a right to the name American, since he gave his life to the service of the colony. He was murdered by the Indians in 1711. It seems certain that most of the books on the Indians were written in answer to a popular demand. The same could not be said of the political histories, which began to appear in the first half of the eighteenth century. The impulse behind som this influence as Colden or William Smith. Thomas Hutchinson was descended from Mrs. Anne Hutchinson, who was exiled from Massachusetts in 1638 because she defied the Puritan hierarchy, and he was quite free from religious narrowness. Born in 1711, he graduated from Harvard in 1727 and began a prosperous career as a merchant. He won the confidence of the Boston people, who sent him to the assembly, where he distinguished himself by opposing the issue of paper money. He was for a long tim
w Belcher, previously of Cambridge, was Commissary five years before 1708. Ibid., p. 456. In the expedition against Port Royal, which sailed from Nantasket Sept. 18, 1710, Edmund Goffe was Lieut.-colonel of the regiment whereof William Tailer was Colonel and William Dudley was Major. Samuel Gookin (grandson of General Gookin) was a Lieutenant in the company commanded by Capt. Robert Handy. Ibid., p. 673. In the Minutes of Council, when raising troops for an expedition against Canada in 1711, are some memoranda concerning Cambridge men: June 20, Mr. Daniel Foxcroft spoken with to be sub-commissary in this expedition, and accepted. June 21, Capt. Gookin Sheriff of Middlesex, and son of Gen. Gookin. and Capt. Phips to be sent to for riding officers. June 22, Mr. Sheriff Gookin and Capt. Sam Mass. Arch., LXXI. 368.. Phips accepted to ride the circle for hastening the troops (Gookin commanded a company in this expedition). June 23, Lieut.-col. Goffe and Major Jonas Bond to pr
1676, 1688. Andrew Bordman,* 1676. Francis Bowman, 1677, 1689, 1696, 1700-1711. Nicholas Fessenden,* 1677, 1692. Christopher Reed,* 1677. John Marrett Ephraim Winship,* 1679. John Oldham, 1679, 1695-1698, 1700– 1703, 1706-1708, 1711-1714. John Hastings,* 1680. Nathaniel Wilson,* 1680. John Russell,* 16810, 1719-1730, 1732. Joseph Winship, 1706, 1725. Jason Russell, 1707-1709, 1711. Josiah Parker, 1710. John Dickson, 1711, 1717, 1722-1724. Thomas Blodg1711, 1717, 1722-1724. Thomas Blodgett, 1711. Jonathan Remington [2d], 1712, 1715-1719. Joseph Bowman, 1712. Moses Bordmnan, 1713-1718, 1720– 1724, 1726, 1727, 1731, 1733-1736. Joseph Cool1711. Jonathan Remington [2d], 1712, 1715-1719. Joseph Bowman, 1712. Moses Bordmnan, 1713-1718, 1720– 1724, 1726, 1727, 1731, 1733-1736. Joseph Coolidge, 1713, 1714, 1730. Daniel Dana, 1715, 1725. William Cutter, 1715, 1718-1721. Samuel Kidder, 1716, 1719-1721. Nath. Sparhawk, 1716-1724, 1726, 1727, 194, 1697-1699, 1706, 1715. Josiah Parker, 1699. Francis Bowman, 1699-1709, 1711. Jonathan Remington, 1700. Edward Winship, 1700, 1701. John Oldham, 170<
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