The Chinese and Mandshu words for bell are onomatopoetic, being respectively tsiang-tsiang and tang-tang.
The weight, dimensions, and date of casting, of some of the largest bells in the world are stated to be as follows: —
Cast in 155336,000
Cast in 1654288,000
Fell in 1703.
Recast in 1733432,00021.23
Broken in 1737.
Moscow (St. Ivan's)127,830
Westminster ( Big Ben, 1858）30,324
London (Houses of Parliament)30,000
Paris (Notre Dame, 1680）28,6728.67 1/2
Montreal (1847）28,5608.68 1/4
New York (City Hall）23,0008.6 1/2 to 7
New York (Fire-alarm, 33d Street）21,612
York ( Great Peter, 1845）10 3/4 tons.8.3
Rome (St. Peters, 1680）18,600
Oxford ( Great Tom, 1680）18,0007.1
defence, but placed outside the body of the place.
De-tach′ing horses from Car′riages.
A means for suddenly releasing an unmanageable team from the vehicle.
The Marquis of Worcester, in his Century of inventions, 1655, describes an apparatus of this kind, under command of the passengers, in which, by means of a T-ended lever, two or four bolts could be simultaneously drawn inwards, and the horses thereby released with the greatest possible ease and certainty.
Hohlfield of Saxony, 1711 – 71, contrived a carriage in which the person could by a single push loosen the pole and set the horses at liberty.
William's English patent, 1802, operates by a cord releasing a bolt, which allows the studs to which the traces are attached to rotate and the traces to slip off.
Since these, numerous devices have been suggested, but have not come extensively into use.
1. An arrangement in a lock, introduced by Ruxton, by which an over-lifted tumbler is caught by deten
ment attached to the axle.
In figure-weaving, the cloth is ornamented with flowers and other devices.
The warp is divided among a number of heddles which are operated by separate treadles, by which different colors may be concealed or brought to the surface, or made to change places according to a presented pattern.
The Jacquard is the principal loom used in weaving figured fabrics.
See damask; Jacquard.
Hohlfield, of Hennerndorf, in Saxony, 1711 – 71, invented a loom for weaving figured fabrics, the model of which is preserved in the collection of the Berlin Academy.
（Nautical.) The ornament on the head or prow of a ship.
A micrometer having threads or wires across its field of view.
It was invented by Malvasia about 1660, who applied a network of fine silver wires crossing each other at right angles, and dividing the field of the telescope into squares.
four fingers in length by the same in breadth.
This tenuity is very far exceeded at the present day. In the practice of the art in Europe, the skin of an unborn calf was first used; afterwards a fine pellicle from the entrails of cattle.
This continues to be used (see supra). About 1621, says Beckmann, Merunne excited general astonishment, when he showed that the Parisian gold-beaters could beat an ounce of gold into 1,600 leaves, which together covered a surface of 105 square feet.
But in 1711, when the pellieles discovered by the Germans came to be used in Paris, Reumer found that an ounce of gold, in the form of a cube, 5 1/4 lines at most in length, breadth, and thickness, and which covered a surface of about twentyseven square lines, could be so extended by the gold-beaters as to cover a surface of more than 1466 1/2 square feet.
The Egyptian mummy-cases were sometimes profusely gilded, and in some instances the body itself.
A small percentage of silver and copper is ad
for the strings, which vibrated only while the key was held down, and the place at which the pin struck the string determined the length concerned in the vibration.
A damper fixed behind the string acted upon it when the pin quitted the string, the key, in fact, forming one of two bridges, between which the strings vibrated.
The instrument was an important one for several hundred years; the favorite of Bach and of Mozart.
The hammer-harpsichord is referred to in the Giornale d'italia, 1711, and was the First pianoforte, though the name was not given till about fifty years afterwards.
It was the invention of Cristofori of Florence; the improvement consisting mainly in pivoted hammers, which were struck by jacks on the keys, and retired immediately from the strings.
The pedals were invented by Loeschman.
The double-harpsichord had two sets of keys and strings in a set. One key of one set struck two keys in unison; while one key of the other set struck a
m of metal planingmachine which has short, quick motions, and is used in shaping objects, planing seats for valves, faces for the same, etc.
10. (Nautical.) The cross-trees.
11. (Music.) Formerly the hammer or quillcarrier of a clavichord, virginal, harpsichord, or spinet, but now an intermediate piece which conveys to the hammer the motion imparted to the key.
The piano-movement jack, which imparts the motion of the key to the hammer, is the invention of Christofori of Florence, 1711.
Rimbault's Pianoforte, London, 1860.
As a compound word, see under the following heads: —
Hydraulic lifting-jack (see hydraulic presses and lifters).Jack-staff.
Latitude.Length of degree of longitude in English feetLatitude.Length of degree of longitude in English feet.
Odometers were possessed by Augustus, the Elector of Saxony, A. D. 1553-86, and for Emperor Rodolphus II. 1576-1612.
In the eighteenth century they became common, and descriptions are found in scientific reports and works of that date.
Hohlfield, born at Hennerndorf, in Saxony, in 1711, seems to have much improved the instrument.
A new French instrument, termed a compteur mecanique, or calculating-machine, not only reckons the distance traversed, but indicates as well the exact sum of money due to the driver.
Two dials are fixed on the back of the driving-seat; one contains a clock, while on the other the distance traveled is indicated by a hand acted on by the wheels; it is entirely beyond the control either of cabby on his fare.
The apparatus is put in and out of gea
rte, are introduced, etc.
A, Bartolomineo Cristofori of Florence, 1711.
B, Mason, London, 1755. C, single action.
The hammer-harpsichord, so called from the substtution of hammers for plectra, was the first piano-forte, and invented by Cristofori of Florence, 1711.
It had a row of leather-topped hammers, which vibrated on a rod and struck the string from beloption by Scipione Maffei and a cut were published in the Giornale dea Litterati d'italia, Venice, 1711 (Tom.
V. p. 144).
In A, Fig. 3686: a, string; b, frame of key-board; c, key with a pad on thecity for forte or piano effects, and the transposed words in the article in the Venetian journal (1711), quoted above, which speaks of the piano and forte as being heard, and also gradations and diverctor of Saxony, in 1710.
Botticher invented the hard paste in 1706; the red ware like jasper, in 1711: white porcelain, in 1709; the perfect, white kind, in 1715.
He died in 1719.
e straw as it issues from the throat of the machine.
The knife revolves in the plane of its length.
The cutting roller or pair of rollers with knives, between which the straw passes.
The knives are across the throat of the machine.
Cutting knives revolving in the plane of the direction of the feed, and cutting across the mouth of the box.
The Hebrews cut straw and grain in the sheaf for food.
Hohlfield, of Saxony, 1711-1771, invented a straw-chopper, while in the service of the Prussian minister, Count de Podenils, at Gusow.
We are not informed as to its construction.
This inventor also produced a thrashing-machine, an odometer, a pedometer, a loom for figured fabrics, a harpsichord, and several other ingenious machines.
The chaff-cutter of the last century was a trough in which the straw or hay was pushed along by a fork, so as to be exposed at the end of the trough to a knife which was pivoted at one
-dung and the marc of olives are still used in France for preparing thrashing-floors.
Thrashing in Lombardy is generally performed by means of a fluted roller (Fig. 6390) drawn around in a circular track.
Hohlfield of Hermerndorf, in Saxony, 1711-1771, invented a thrashing-machine while working on the estate of Gusow, in the service of the Prussian minister, Count de Podervils.
We are not informed as to its construction; it seems to have given satisfaction.
He also invented a straw-choppipes.
The example (Fig. 6730) has a fixed jaw which grasps the pipe, and a slider which carries a rotary circular cutter and is advanced by a screw, while the instrument is turned about the pipe by means of its handle.
See also pipe-cutter, page 1711.
Fig. 6731 is a special tool for cutting off boiler-tubes when their exterior cannot be reached.
The lower end of the stock is inserted into the tube; the tool projects radially from the revolving-stock and cuts off the boil