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, £ 20,000 if to thirty miles, to be determined by a voyage from England to some port in America. John Harrison, born in 1693 at Faulby, near Pontefract, in England, undertook the task, and succeeded after repeated attempts, covering the period 1728 – 1761. His first timepiece was made in 1735; the second in 1739; the third in 1749; the fourth in 1755, the year of the great earthquake at Lisbon. In 1758 his instrument was sent in a king's ship to Jamaica, which it reached 5″ slow. On the r′tion Bal′ance. A balance-wheel for a watch or chronometer, so constructed as to make isochronal beats, notwithstanding changes of temperature. It was invented by Harrison, of Foulby, England, who devoted himself for a long series of years — 1728 – 1761 — to the discovery of a mode of overcoming the change of rate due to the expansion and contraction of the balance. The compensation pendulum requires but one adjustment, to maintain the center of gravity at an equal distance at a
er making the cut. c, an implement denominated the universal glazingtool, for cutting and setting glass. This has a small thin roller pivoted at its lower extremity, which in its passage over the glass separates the particles in a manner similar to the diamond. The spatula at the other end is used for puttying, etc. The diamond is crystallized carbon. Diamonds were first brought to Europe from the mine of Sumbalpoor. The Golconda mines were discovered in 1534. The mines of Brazil in 1728. Those in the Ural in 1829. The great Russian diamond weighs 193 carats; cost, £ 104,166 13 s. 4 d. in 1772. The Pitt diamond weighed 136 carats; sold to the king of France for £ 125,000, in 1720. The Koh-i-noor was found in 1550. It belonged in turn to Shah Jehan, AurungZebe, Nadir Shah, the Afghans, Runjeet-Singh, and Queen Victoria, 1850. It originally weighed 800 carats, was cut down to 289 carats by an unskilful Italian, and then to 102 1/4 carats to perfect its shape. See diamond
by James Franklin, a brother of the Doctor. Andrew Bradford founded a paper at Philadelphia in 1719, and his father, William Bradford, issued the first newspaper published in New York, the New York gazette, in 1725. From this period they multiplied rapidly in the Colonies. The common name Gazette is derived from the name of a Venetian coin, worth about a cent and a half, and which was the price of the Venetian newspaper first published. The Maryland gazette was established in 1727 or 1728; the Virginia gazette, 1736; the Rhode Island gazette, 1732; South Carolina gazette, 1731 or 1732; Georgia gazette, 1763. The first paper in New Hampshire was published in 1756, but in the adjacent State of Vermont none existed prior to 1781. After the Revolution, the history of newspaper progress becomes identical with that of the nation, the printing-press keeping closely in the van of Anglo-American civilization. The honor of publishing the first paper west of the Alleghanies is c
ng extended under the hammer. It is then a rough bar. The rolls which bring the iron to definite merchantable shape are known as the merchant train. The process of drawing the loops in grooved rolls was suggested in Payne's patent (England, 1728), but does not seem to have been practiced. Pud′dling. 1. (Metallurgy.) a. The lining of the hearth or boshes of a furnace in which metal is melted. The material of the puddle was formerly, for some uses, of clay and charcoal worked intpartners and government officials, and died poor. Several acts of Parliament, and government grants of small amount, were made to his descendants, even as late as 1856. The puddle-rolls patented by Cort in 1783 are described in Payne's patent, 1728. The process of puddling iron in a reverberating furnace, stirring, gathering the loop, hammering, and rolling, is described in the specification of the Brothers Cranage, 1766, and the furnace in Onion's patent, 1783. The pig-iron, broken in
t a rotating head or arms horizontally and parallel with the plane of the surface to be operated on, the table traveling in either direction under the head, thus bringing all parts of the material in contact with the cutters. See Fig. 3796, page 1728. 2. (Metal.) A shaper or planer with its cut transverse of the table. See next article; also Fig. 6150, page 2477. Trans-verse′ Shap′ing-ma-chine′. Fig. 6616 is a shaping-machine with a horizontally reciprocating cutter-head on a pillaworking.) A planer in which the bed carrying the work is caused to traverse beneath the revolving cutters, instead, as is usually the case, of the work being advanced over the stationary table (Fig. 6627). See also planing-machine, Fig. 3796, page 1728. Trav′ers-ing–el′e-va′tor. See traveler, Fig. 6620; and hay-elevator, Fig. 2449. Trav′ers-ing–jack. a. A jack used for engines or carriages upon the rails. It is adapted for raising and then drawing (Fig. 6628). Travers
izing is used, as the gelatine of the root is sufficient for that purpose. A better sort of paper is sold in sheets 12 to 18 inches long, and 4 to 5 inches wide. Writing is done with charcoal, or with pencils prepared of coal and lime. Wood-plan′ing ma-chine′. Bramah's English patent, 1802. The planing-machine for wood long preceded that for metal. General Bentham's reciprocating planingmachine was invented in 1791; Bramah's transverse planer, in 1802. See planing-machine, pages 1728, 1729. Wood-polishing machine. Wood-pol′ish-ing ma-chine′. Fig. 7335 shows a machine for polishing pencils, which are placed on an endless apron, that runs over a table. The ends of the pencils enter guide-notches in the blocks of an inner endless apron, running at a different speed from the former apron, so as to cause rotation in the pencils as they are carried forward beneath the polishing-blocks, which are reciprocated transversely as to the machine and lengthwise of the pencil